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Near-resonance in a System of Sub-Neptunes from TESS

Quinn, Samuel N. and Beichman, Charles A. and Christiansen, Jessie L. and Ciardi, David (2019) Near-resonance in a System of Sub-Neptunes from TESS. Astronomical Journal, 158 (5). Art. No. 177. ISSN 1538-3881. doi:10.3847/1538-3881/ab3f2b.

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We report the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite detection of a multi-planet system orbiting the V = 10.9 K0 dwarf TOI-125. We find evidence for up to five planets, with varying confidence. Three transit signals with high signal-to-noise ratio correspond to sub-Neptune-sized planets (2.76, 2.79, and 2.94 R⊕), and we statistically validate the planetary nature of the two inner planets (P_b = 4.65 days, P_c = 9.15 days). With only two transits observed, we report the outer object (P_(.03) = 19.98 days) as a planet candidate with high signal-to-noise ratio. We also detect a candidate transiting super-Earth (1.4 R⊕) with an orbital period of only 12.7 hr and a candidate Neptune-sized planet (4.2 R⊕) with a period of 13.28 days, both at low signal-to-noise ratio. This system is amenable to mass determination via radial velocities and transit-timing variations, and provides an opportunity to study planets of similar size while controlling for age and environment. The ratio of orbital periods between TOI-125 b and c (P_c /P_b = 1.97) is slightly lower than an exact 2:1 commensurability and is atypical of multiple planet systems from Kepler, which show a preference for period ratios just wide of first-order period ratios. A dynamical analysis refines the allowed parameter space through stability arguments and suggests that despite the nearly commensurate periods, the system is unlikely to be in resonance.

Item Type:Article
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URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Quinn, Samuel N.0000-0002-8964-8377
Beichman, Charles A.0000-0002-5627-5471
Christiansen, Jessie L.0000-0002-8035-4778
Ciardi, David0000-0002-5741-3047
Additional Information:© 2019 The American Astronomical Society. J.C.B. is supported by the NSF Graduate Research Fellowship grant No. DGE 1256260 and by the Leinweber Center for Theoretical Physics. Work performed by J.E.R. was supported by the Harvard Future Faculty Leaders Postdoctoral fellowship. D.J.A. gratefully acknowledges support from the STFC via an Ernest Rutherford Fellowship (ST/R00384X/1). A.V.'s contribution to this work was performed under contract with the California Institute of Technology (Caltech)/Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) funded by NASA through the Sagan Fellowship Program executed by the NASA Exoplanet Science Institute. Work by J.N.W. was supported by the Heising-Simons Foundation. D.D. acknowledges support for this work provided by NASA through Hubble Fellowship grant HST-HF2-51372.001-A awarded by the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., for NASA, under contract NAS5-26555. I.J.M.C. acknowledges support from the NSF through grant AST-1824644. A.G. is supported by the Ida M. Green Fellowship. M.T. is supported by MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI grant Nos. 18H05442, 15H02063, and 22000005. This work is partly supported by JSPS KAKENHI grant Nos. JP15H02063, JP18H01265, JP18H05439, JP18H05442, and JST PRESTO grant No. JPMJPR1775. We acknowledge the support provided by the Polish National Science Center through grants 2016/21/B/ST9/01613 and 2017/27/B/ST9/02727. We thank Zach Hartman and Dan Nusdeo for help with the Gemini-South observations. We thank Akihiko Fukui, Nobuhiko Kusakabe, Kumiko Morihana, Tetsuya Nagata, Takahiro Nagayama, Taku Nishiumi, and the staff of SAAO for their kind support for IRSF SIRIUS observations and analyses. Funding for the TESS mission is provided by NASA's Science Mission directorate. We acknowledge the use of public TESS Alert data from pipelines at the TESS Science Office and at the TESS Science Processing Operations Center. This paper includes data collected by the TESS mission, which are publicly available from the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST). This work used the Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE), which is supported by National Science Foundation grant number ACI-1053575. This research was done using resources provided by the Open Science Grid, which is supported by the National Science Foundation and the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science, through allocation TG-AST150033. The Swiss Euler telescope is supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation. This paper includes observations obtained under ESO/VLT program 0102.C-0503(A), and Gemini program GS-2018B-LP-101. Gemini Observatory is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina), Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil), and Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (Republic of Korea). This work makes use of observations from the LCOGT network. The IRSF project is a collaboration between Nagoya University and the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) supported by the Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Priority Areas (A) (Nos. 10147207 and 10147214) and Optical & Near-Infrared Astronomy Inter-University Cooperation Program, from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) of Japan and the National Research Foundation (NRF) of South Africa. Based in part on data collected with Solaris network of telescopes of the Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center of the Polish Academy of Sciences. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Research Council under the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP/2007-2013) ERC Grant Agreement 336480, from the ARC grant for Concerted Research Actions, financed by the Wallonia-Brussels Federation, and from a research grant from the Balzan Prize Foundation. TRAPPIST is funded by the Belgian Fund for Scientific Research (Fond National de la Recherche Scientifique, FNRS) under the grant FRFC 2.5.594.09.F, with the participation of the Swiss National Science Fundation (SNF). M.G. and E.J. are FNRS Senior Research Associates. This work has made use of data from the European Space Agency (ESA) mission Gaia (, processed by the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC, Funding for the DPAC has been provided by national institutions, in particular the institutions participating in the Gaia Multilateral Agreement. This research has made use of NASA's Astrophysics Data System. This research has made use of the VizieR catalog access tool, CDS, Strasbourg, France. The original description of the VizieR service was published in A&AS 143, 23. This research has made use of the SIMBAD database, operated at CDS, Strasbourg, France. This research has made use of the NASA Exoplanet Archive and the Exoplanet Follow-up Observation Program website, which are operated by the California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under the Exoplanet Exploration Program. Facilities: TESS - , Euler1.2m (CORALIE) - The Swiss Euler 1.2m Telescope, Gemini:South (DSSI) - Gemini South Telescope, SOAR (HRCam) - The Southern Astrophysical Research Telescope, VLT:Antu (NACO) - Very Large Telescope (Antu), IRSF - Infrared Survey Facility, LCOGT - Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope, SSO:1m - Siding Springs Observatory's 1 meter Telescope, TRAPPIST. - Software: EXOFASTv2 (Eastman et al. 2013; Eastman 2017), vespa (Morton 2015), Mercury6 (Chambers 1999), AstroImageJ (Collins et al. 2017).
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NSF Graduate Research FellowshipDGE-1256260
Leinweber Center for Theoretical PhysicsUNSPECIFIED
Harvard UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)ST/R00384X/1
Heising-Simons FoundationUNSPECIFIED
NASA Hubble FellowshipHST-HF2-51372.001-A
Ida M. Green FellowshipUNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT)UNSPECIFIED
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)18H05442
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)15H02063
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)22000005
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP15H02063
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP18H01265
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP18H05439
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP18H05442
Japan Science and Technology AgencyJPMJPR1775
National Science Centre (Poland)2016/21/B/ST9/01613
National Science Centre (Poland)2017/27/B/ST9/02727
Department of Energy (DOE)UNSPECIFIED
Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF)UNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT)10147207
Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT)10147214
National Research Foundation (South Africa)UNSPECIFIED
European Research Council (ERC)336480
Australian Research CouncilUNSPECIFIED
Wallonia-Brussels FederationUNSPECIFIED
Balzan Prize FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Fond National de la Recherche Scientifique2.5.594.09.F
Gaia Multilateral AgreementUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Transit photometry; Mini Neptunes; Super Earths; Exoplanets
Issue or Number:5
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: Transit photometry (1709); Mini Neptunes (1063); Super Earths (1655); Exoplanets (498)
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20191010-140917527
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Samuel N. Quinn et al 2019 AJ 158 177
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:99220
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:10 Oct 2019 21:33
Last Modified:16 Nov 2021 17:44

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