A Caltech Library Service

Contrasting effects of CO₂ fertilization, land-use change and warming on seasonal amplitude of Northern Hemisphere CO₂ exchange

Bastos, Ana and Ciais, Philippe and Chevallier, Frederic and Rödenbeck, Christian and Ballantyne, Ashley P. and Maignan, Fabienne and Yin, Yi and Fernández-Martínez, Marcos and Friedlingstein, Pierre and Peñuelas, Josep and Piao, Shilong L. and Sitch, Stephen and Smith, William K. and Wang, Xuhui and Zhu, Zaichun and Haverd, Vanessa and Kato, Etsushi and Jain, Atul K. and Lienert, Sebastian and Lombardozzi, Danica and Nabel, Julia E. M. S. and Peylin, Philippe and Poulter, Benjamin and Zhu, Dan (2019) Contrasting effects of CO₂ fertilization, land-use change and warming on seasonal amplitude of Northern Hemisphere CO₂ exchange. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 19 (19). pp. 12361-12375. ISSN 1680-7324.

[img] PDF - Published Version
Creative Commons Attribution.

[img] PDF - Supplemental Material
Creative Commons Attribution.


Use this Persistent URL to link to this item:


Continuous atmospheric CO₂ monitoring data indicate an increase in the amplitude of seasonal CO₂-cycle exchange (SCA_(NBP)) in northern high latitudes. The major drivers of enhanced SCA_(NBP) remain unclear and intensely debated, with land-use change, CO₂ fertilization and warming being identified as likely contributors. We integrated CO₂-flux data from two atmospheric inversions (consistent with atmospheric records) and from 11 state-of-the-art land-surface models (LSMs) to evaluate the relative importance of individual contributors to trends and drivers of the SCA_(NBP) of CO₂ fluxes for 1980–2015. The LSMs generally reproduce the latitudinal increase in SCA_(NBP) trends within the inversions range. Inversions and LSMs attribute SCA_(NBP) increase to boreal Asia and Europe due to enhanced vegetation productivity (in LSMs) and point to contrasting effects of CO₂ fertilization (positive) and warming (negative) on SCA_(NBP). Our results do not support land-use change as a key contributor to the increase in SCA_(NBP). The sensitivity of simulated microbial respiration to temperature in LSMs explained biases in SCA_(NBP) trends, which suggests that SCA_(NBP) could help to constrain model turnover times.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Information
Bastos, Ana0000-0002-7368-7806
Ciais, Philippe0000-0001-8560-4943
Chevallier, Frederic0000-0002-4327-3813
Rödenbeck, Christian0000-0001-6011-6249
Maignan, Fabienne0000-0001-5024-5928
Yin, Yi0000-0003-4750-4997
Fernández-Martínez, Marcos0000-0002-5661-3610
Peñuelas, Josep0000-0002-7215-0150
Smith, William K.0000-0002-5785-6489
Wang, Xuhui0000-0003-0818-9816
Kato, Etsushi0000-0001-8814-804X
Jain, Atul K.0000-0002-4051-3228
Lienert, Sebastian0000-0003-1740-918X
Nabel, Julia E. M. S.0000-0002-8122-5206
Zhu, Dan0000-0002-5857-1899
Additional Information:© 2019 Author(s). This work is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. Received: 19 March 2019 – Discussion started: 29 March 2019 - Revised: 10 August 2019 – Accepted: 2 September 2019 – Published: 7 October 2019. Data availability. CAMS v16r1 can be freely available from the COPERNICUS repository: (last access: 16 November 2017) (Chevallier, 2017). CarboScope s85 v4.1 results are available at (last access: 26 March 2018) (Rödenbeck, 2017a, b, c) (,, and LUH2v2h data are freely available at (last access: 7 July 2019). ESA-CCI LC maps can be downloaded after registration at (last access: 1 August 2017). NPP from Smith et al. (2016) can be downloaded from (last access: 4 August 2017). TRENDYv6 DGVM outputs are available on request to Stephen Sitch ( and Pierre Friedlingstein ( The supplement related to this article is available online at: Author contributions. AB and PC designed the study, conducted the analysis and wrote the paper. APB, FC, CR, FM, MFM, JP, SLP, WKS, XW, YY and ZZ contributed with expert knowledge during the development of the study. SS and PF coordinated the TRENDY simulations and maintained the TRENDYv6 data. FC and CR developed the atmospheric inversion data sets and contributed to the analysis of inversions. VH, EK, AKJ, SL, DL, JEMSN, PP, BP and DZ performed the TRENDYv6 simulations. All authors contributed to the writing of the paper. The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. This article is part of the special issue “The 10th International Carbon Dioxide Conference (ICDC10) and the 19th WMO/IAEA Meeting on Carbon Dioxide, other Greenhouse Gases and Related Measurement Techniques (GGMT-2017) (AMT/ACP/BG/CP/ESD inter-journal SI)”. It is a result of the 10th International Carbon Dioxide Conference, Interlaken, Switzerland, 21–25 August 2017. This work was partly supported by the European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative (ESA-CCI) RECCAP-2 project (ESRIN/4000123002/18/I-NB). Marcos Fernández-Martinez is a postdoctoral fellow of the Research Foundation – Flanders (FWO). Vanessa Haverd acknowledges support from the Earth Systems and Climate Change Hub, funded by the Australian government's National Environmental Science Program. This research has been supported by the European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative (RECCAP-2 project (grant no. 4000123002/18/I-NB)). This paper was edited by Eliza Harris and reviewed by two anonymous referees.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
European Space Agency (ESA)4000123002/18/I-NB
Fonds Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (FWO)UNSPECIFIED
Australian GovernmentUNSPECIFIED
Issue or Number:19
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20191025-111755128
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Bastos, A., Ciais, P., Chevallier, F., Rödenbeck, C., Ballantyne, A. P., Maignan, F., Yin, Y., Fernández-Martínez, M., Friedlingstein, P., Peñuelas, J., Piao, S. L., Sitch, S., Smith, W. K., Wang, X., Zhu, Z., Haverd, V., Kato, E., Jain, A. K., Lienert, S., Lombardozzi, D., Nabel, J. E. M. S., Peylin, P., Poulter, B., and Zhu, D.: Contrasting effects of CO2 fertilization, land-use change and warming on seasonal amplitude of Northern Hemisphere CO2 exchange, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12361–12375,, 2019.
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:99446
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:25 Oct 2019 19:25
Last Modified:09 Mar 2020 13:19

Repository Staff Only: item control page