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Geometric distortion calibration with photolithographic pinhole masks for high-precision astrometry

Service, Maxwell and Lu, Jessica R. and Chun, Mark and Suzuki, Ryuji and Schoeck, Matthias and Atwood, Jenny and Andersen, David and Herriot, Glen (2019) Geometric distortion calibration with photolithographic pinhole masks for high-precision astrometry. Journal of Astronomical Telescopes, Instruments, and Systems, 5 (3). Art. No. 039005. ISSN 2329-4124. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20191025-154039170

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Abstract

Adaptive optics (AO) systems deliver high-resolution images that may be ideal for precisely measuring positions of stars (i.e., astrometry) if the system has stable and well-calibrated geometric optical distortions. A calibration unit equipped with a back-illuminated pinhole mask can be utilized to measure instrumental optical distortions. AO systems on the largest ground-based telescopes, such as the W. M. Keck Observatory and the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT), require pinhole positions known to be ∼20  nm to achieve an astrometric precision of 0.001 of a resolution element. In pursuit of that goal, we characterize a photolithographic pinhole mask and explore the systematic errors that result from different experimental setups. We characterized the nonlinear geometric distortion of a simple imaging system using the mask, and we measured 857-nm root mean square of optical distortion with a final residual of 39 nm (equivalent to 20  μ for TMT). We use a sixth-order bivariate Legendre polynomial to model the optical distortion and allow the reference positions of the individual pinholes to vary. The nonlinear deviations in the pinhole pattern with respect to the manufacturing design of a square pattern are 47.2 nm ± 4.5 nm (random) ± 10.8 nm (systematic) over an area of 1788  mm². These deviations reflect the additional error induced when assuming that the pinhole mask is manufactured perfectly square. We also find that ordered mask distortions are significantly more difficult to characterize than random mask distortions as the ordered distortions can alias into optical camera distortion. Future design simulations for astrometric calibration units should include ordered mask distortions. We conclude that photolithographic pinhole masks are >10 times better than the pinhole masks deployed in first-generation AO systems and are sufficient to meet the distortion calibration requirements for the upcoming 30-m-class telescopes.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
https://doi.org/10.1117/1.jatis.5.3.039005DOIArticle
https://arxiv.org/abs/1908.04504arXivDiscussion Paper
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Lu, Jessica R.0000-0001-9611-0009
Additional Information:© 2019 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Paper 19063 received May 31, 2019; accepted for publication Aug. 9, 2019; published online Sep. 18, 2019. We would like to acknowledge the NFIRAOS team and NRC Herzberg for providing the pinhole mask. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1310706. The TMT Project gratefully acknowledges the support of the TMT collaborating institutions. They are the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, the National Astronomical Observatories of China and their consortium partners, the Department of Science and Technology of India and their supported institutes, and the National Research Council of Canada. This work was supported as well by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Canada Foundation for Innovation, the Ontario Ministry of Research and Innovation, the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, the British Columbia Knowledge Development Fund, the Association of Canadian Universities for Research in Astronomy (ACURA), the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), the U.S. National Science Foundation, the National Institutes of Natural Sciences of Japan, and the Department of Atomic Energy of India.
Group:Thirty Meter Telescope
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NSFAST-1310706
CaltechUNSPECIFIED
University of CaliforniaUNSPECIFIED
National Astronomical Observatory of JapanUNSPECIFIED
National Astronomical Observatories of ChinaUNSPECIFIED
Department of Science and Technology (India)UNSPECIFIED
National Research Council of CanadaUNSPECIFIED
Gordon and Betty Moore FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Canada Foundation for InnovationUNSPECIFIED
Ontario Ministry of Research and InnovationUNSPECIFIED
Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC)UNSPECIFIED
British Columbia Knowledge Development FundUNSPECIFIED
Association of Canadian Universities for Research in Astronomy (ACURA)UNSPECIFIED
Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA)UNSPECIFIED
National Institutes of Natural Sciences of JapanUNSPECIFIED
Department of Atomic Energy (India)UNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:distortion; astrometry; geometric optics; metrology
Issue or Number:3
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20191025-154039170
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20191025-154039170
Official Citation:Maxwell Service, Jessica R. Lu, Mark Chun, Ryuji Suzuki, Matthias Schoeck, Jenny Atwood, David Andersen, and Glen Herriot "Geometric distortion calibration with photolithographic pinhole masks for high-precision astrometry," Journal of Astronomical Telescopes, Instruments, and Systems 5(3), 039005 (18 September 2019). https://doi.org/10.1117/1.JATIS.5.3.039005
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:99468
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:25 Oct 2019 22:57
Last Modified:25 Oct 2019 22:57

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