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Four Newborn Planets Transiting the Young Solar Analog V1298 Tau

David, Trevor J. and Petigura, Erik A. and Luger, Rodrigo and Foreman-Mackey, Daniel and Livingston, John H. and Mamajek, Eric E. and Hillenbrand, Lynne A. (2019) Four Newborn Planets Transiting the Young Solar Analog V1298 Tau. Astrophysical Journal Letters, 885 (1). Art. No. L12. ISSN 2041-8213. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20191029-112536208

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Abstract

Exoplanets orbiting pre-main-sequence stars are laboratories for studying planet evolution processes, including atmospheric loss, orbital migration, and radiative cooling. V1298 Tau, a young solar analog with an age of 23 ± 4 Myr, is one such laboratory. The star is already known to host a Jupiter-sized planet on a 24 day orbit. Here, we report the discovery of three additional planets—all between the sizes of Neptune and Saturn—based on our analysis of K2 Campaign 4 photometry. Planets c and d have sizes of 5.6 and 6.4 R⊕, respectively, and with orbital periods of 8.25 and 12.40 days reside 0.25% outside of the nominal 3:2 mean-motion resonance. Planet e is 8.7 R⊕ in size but only transited once in the K2 time series and thus has a period longer than 36 days, but likely shorter than 223 days. The V1298 Tau system may be a precursor to the compact multiplanet systems found to be common by the Kepler mission. However, the large planet sizes stand in sharp contrast to the vast majority of Kepler multiplanet systems, which have planets smaller than 3 R⊕. Simple dynamical arguments suggest total masses of <28 M⊕ and <120 M⊕ for the c–d and d–b planet pairs, respectively. The implied low masses suggest that the planets may still be radiatively cooling and contracting, and perhaps losing atmosphere. The V1298 Tau system offers rich prospects for further follow-up including atmospheric characterization by transmission or eclipse spectroscopy, dynamical characterization through transit-timing variations, and measurements of planet masses and obliquities by radial velocities.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
https://doi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/ab4c99DOIArticle
https://arxiv.org/abs/1910.04563arXivDiscussion Paper
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
David, Trevor J.0000-0001-6534-6246
Petigura, Erik A.0000-0003-0967-2893
Luger, Rodrigo0000-0002-0296-3826
Foreman-Mackey, Daniel0000-0002-9328-5652
Livingston, John H.0000-0002-4881-3620
Mamajek, Eric E.0000-0003-2008-1488
Additional Information:© 2019 The American Astronomical Society. Received 2019 September 16; revised 2019 October 7; accepted 2019 October 9; published 2019 October 29. U.S. Government sponsorship acknowledged. We are grateful to Konstantin Batygin, Elisabeth Newton, Aaron Rizzuto, and Andrew Mann for helpful discussions. T.J.D. and E.E.M. gratefully acknowledge support from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Exoplanetary Science Initiative. Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA. This Letter includes data collected by the Kepler mission, funded by the NASA Science Mission directorate. This research has made extensive use of the exoplanet documentation and tutorials provided at https://exoplanet.readthedocs.io/en/stable/. Facility: Kepler. - Software: astropy (Astropy Collaboration et al. 2013, 2018), emcee (Foreman-Mackey et al. 2013), exoplanet (Foreman-Mackey et al. 2019), EVEREST 2.0 (Luger et al. 2018), ipython (Perez & Granger 2007), jupyter (Kluyver et al. 2016), K2SC (Aigrain et al. 2016), lightkurve (Barentsen et al. 2019), matplotlib (Hunter 2007), numpy (van der Walt et al. 2011), pymc3 (Salvatier et al. 2016), seaborn (Waskom et al. 2017), scipy (Jones et al. 2001), Starry (Luger et al. 2019), theano (Theano Development Team et al. 2016).
Group:Astronomy Department
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NASA/JPL/CaltechUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Exoplanets; Exoplanet astronomy; Exoplanet evolution; Transit photometry; Planetary system formation; Weak-line T Tauri stars; Young star clusters
Issue or Number:1
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: Exoplanets (498); Exoplanet astronomy (486); Exoplanet evolution (491); Transit photometry (1709); Planetary system formation (1257); Weak-line T Tauri stars (1795); Young star clusters (1833)
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20191029-112536208
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20191029-112536208
Official Citation:Trevor J. David et al 2019 ApJL 885 L12
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:99534
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:29 Oct 2019 19:25
Last Modified:29 Oct 2019 19:25

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