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Eye movement analysis with switching hidden Markov models

Chuk, Tim and Chan, Antoni B. and Shimojo, Shinsuke and Hsiao, Janet H. (2020) Eye movement analysis with switching hidden Markov models. Behavior Research Methods, 52 (3). pp. 1026-1043. ISSN 1554-3528.

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Here we propose the eye movement analysis with switching hidden Markov model (EMSHMM) approach to analyzing eye movement data in cognitive tasks involving cognitive state changes. We used a switching hidden Markov model (SHMM) to capture a participant’s cognitive state transitions during the task, with eye movement patterns during each cognitive state being summarized using a regular HMM. We applied EMSHMM to a face preference decision-making task with two pre-assumed cognitive states—exploration and preference-biased periods—and we discovered two common eye movement patterns through clustering the cognitive state transitions. One pattern showed both a later transition from the exploration to the preference-biased cognitive state and a stronger tendency to look at the preferred stimulus at the end, and was associated with higher decision inference accuracy at the end; the other pattern entered the preference-biased cognitive state earlier, leading to earlier above-chance inference accuracy in a trial but lower inference accuracy at the end. This finding was not revealed by any other method. As compared with our previous HMM method, which assumes no cognitive state change (i.e., EMHMM), EMSHMM captured eye movement behavior in the task better, resulting in higher decision inference accuracy. Thus, EMSHMM reveals and provides quantitative measures of individual differences in cognitive behavior/style, making a significant impact on the use of eyetracking to study cognitive behavior across disciplines.

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Additional Information:© 2019 The Psychonomic Society, Inc. Published 11 November 2019; Issue Date June 2020. We are grateful to the Research Grant Council of Hong Kong (project 17609117 to J.H.H. and CityU 110513 to A.B.C.) and to JST.CREST (to S.S.). A.B.C. and J.H.H. contributed equally to this article. We thank the editor and two anonymous reviewers for the helpful comments. Open Practices Statement: The code (Matlab Toolbox EMSHMM) and data of the study are available to the research community for noncommercial use at The experiment reported here was not preregistered.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Research Grants Council of Hong Kong17609117
Research Grants Council of Hong KongCityU 110513
Japan Science and Technology AgencyUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Hidden Markov model; Eye movement; Preference decision making; EMHMM
Issue or Number:3
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20191118-074052352
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Official Citation:Chuk, T., Chan, A.B., Shimojo, S. et al. Eye movement analysis with switching hidden Markov models. Behav Res 52, 1026–1043 (2020).
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:99883
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:18 Nov 2019 16:15
Last Modified:23 Jun 2020 20:36

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