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GROWTH on S190814bv: Deep Synoptic Limits on the Optical/Near-Infrared Counterpart to a Neutron Star-Black Hole Merger

Andreoni, Igor and Goldstein, Daniel A. and Kasliwal, Mansi M. and De, Kishalay and Jencson, Jacob E. and Anand, Shreya and Coughlin, Michael W. and Karambelkar, Viraj R. and Sharma, Yashvi and Fremling, U. Christoffer and Bagdasaryan, Ashot and Dahiwale, Aishwarya and Hankins, Matthew and Tzanidakis, Anastasios and Cook, David O. (2020) GROWTH on S190814bv: Deep Synoptic Limits on the Optical/Near-Infrared Counterpart to a Neutron Star-Black Hole Merger. Astrophysical Journal, 890 (2). Art. No. 131. ISSN 1538-4357.

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On 2019 August 14, the Advanced LIGO and Virgo interferometers detected the high-significance gravitational wave (GW) signal S190814bv. The GW data indicated that the event resulted from a neutron star–black hole (NSBH) merger, or potentially a low-mass binary BH merger. Due to the low false-alarm rate and the precise localization (23 deg2 at 90%), S190814bv presented the community with the best opportunity yet to directly observe an optical/near-infrared counterpart to an NSBH merger. To search for potential counterparts, the GROWTH Collaboration performed real-time image subtraction on six nights of public Dark Energy Camera images acquired in the 3 weeks following the merger, covering >98% of the localization probability. Using a worldwide network of follow-up facilities, we systematically undertook spectroscopy and imaging of optical counterpart candidates. Combining these data with a photometric redshift catalog, we ruled out each candidate as the counterpart to S190814bv and placed deep, uniform limits on the optical emission associated with S190814bv. For the nearest consistent GW distance, radiative transfer simulations of NSBH mergers constrain the ejecta mass of S190814bv to be M_(ej) < 0.04 M⊙ at polar viewing angles, or M_(ej) < 0.03 M⊙ if the opacity is κ < 2 cm²g⁻¹. Assuming a tidal deformability for the NS at the high end of the range compatible with GW170817 results, our limits would constrain the BH spin component aligned with the orbital momentum to be χ < 0.7 for mass ratios Q < 6, with weaker constraints for more compact NSs.

Item Type:Article
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URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Andreoni, Igor0000-0002-8977-1498
Goldstein, Daniel A.0000-0003-3461-8661
Kasliwal, Mansi M.0000-0002-5619-4938
De, Kishalay0000-0002-8989-0542
Jencson, Jacob E.0000-0001-5754-4007
Coughlin, Michael W.0000-0002-8262-2924
Fremling, U. Christoffer0000-0002-4223-103X
Hankins, Matthew0000-0001-9315-8437
Tzanidakis, Anastasios0000-0003-0484-3331
Cook, David O.0000-0002-6877-7655
Additional Information:© 2020 The American Astronomical Society. Received 2019 October 29; revised 2019 December 20; accepted 2019 December 30; published 2020 February 20. This work was supported by the GROWTH (Global Relay of Observatories Watching Transients Happen) project funded by the National Science Foundation under PIRE grant No. 1545949. GROWTH is a collaborative project among California Institute of Technology (USA), University of Maryland College Park (USA), University of Wisconsin Milwaukee (USA), Texas Tech University (USA), San Diego State University (USA), University of Washington (USA), Los Alamos National Laboratory (USA), Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan), National Central University (Taiwan), Indian Institute of Astrophysics (India), Indian Institute of Technology Bombay (India), Weizmann Institute of Science (Israel), The Oskar Klein Centre at Stockholm University (Sweden), Humboldt University (Germany), Liverpool John Moores University (UK), and University of Sydney (Australia). D.A.G. acknowledges support from Hubble Fellowship grant HST-HF2-51408.001-A. Support for program No. HST-HF2-51408.001-A is provided by NASA through a grant from the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. We gratefully acknowledge Amazon Web Services, Inc., for a generous grant (PS_IK_FY2019_Q3_ Caltech_Gravitational_Wave) that funded our use of the Amazon Web Services cloud computing infrastructure to process the DECam data. P.E.N. acknowledges support from the DOE through DE-FOA-0001088, Analytical Modeling for Extreme-Scale Computing Environments. D.A.P. and D.A.G. performed the work associated with this project at the Aspen Center for Physics, which is supported by National Science Foundation grant PHY-1607611. This work was partially supported by a grant from the Simons Foundation. A.J.C.-T. thanks I. Agudo, J. Cepa, V. Dhillon, J. A. Font, A. Martin-Carrillo, S. R. Oates, S. B. Pandey, E. Pian, R. Sanchez-Ramirez, A. M. Sintes, V. Sokolov, and B.-B. Zhang for fruitful conversations. F.F. gratefully acknowledges support from NASA through grant 80NSSC18K0565 and from the NSF through grant PHY1806278. M.B., A.G., E.K., S.D., and J.S. acknowledge support from the G.R.E.A.T research environment funded by the Swedish National Science Foundation. J.S. acknowledges support from the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation. J.S.B. and K.Z. are partially supported by a Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation Data-Driven Discovery grant. D.A.H.B. acknowledges research support from the National Research Foundation of South Africa. M.W.C. is supported by the David and Ellen Lee Postdoctoral Fellowship at the California Institute of Technology. S.N. and G.R. are grateful for support from VIDI, Projectruimte, and TOP Grants of the Innovational Research Incentives Scheme (Vernieuwingsimpuls) financed by the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO). H.K. and K.Z. thank the LSSTC Data Science Fellowship Program, which is funded by LSSTC, NSF Cybertraining grant No. 1829740, the Brinson Foundation, and the Moore Foundation; his participation in the program has benefited this work. D.D. is supported by an Australian Government Research Training Program Scholarship. P.G. is supported by NASA Earth and Space Science Fellowship (ASTRO18F-0085). D.L.K. was supported by NSF grant AST-1816492. Y.D.H. thanks the support by the program of China Scholarships Council (CSC) under grant No. 201406660015. A.K.H.K. acknowledges support from the Ministry of Science and Technology of the Republic of China (Taiwan) through grants 107-2628-M-007-003 and 108-2628-M-007-005-RSP. V.Z.G. acknowledges support from the University of Washington College of Arts and Sciences, Department of Astronomy, and the DIRAC Institute. University of Washington's DIRAC Institute is supported through generous gifts from the Charles and Lisa Simonyi Fund for Arts and Sciences and the Washington Research Foundation. M.J. and A.C. acknowledge the support of the Washington Research Foundation Data Science Term Chair fund and the UW Provost's Initiative in Data-Intensive Discovery. S.M. thanks the LSSTC Data Science Fellowship Program, which is funded by LSSTC, NSF Cybertraining Grant-1829740, the Brinson Foundation, and the Moore Foundation; his participation in the program has benefited this work. M.G. is supported by the Polish NCN MAESTRO grant 2014/14/A/ST9/00121. This research has made use of the VizieR catalog access tool, CDS, Strasbourg, France (doi:10.26093/cds/vizier). The original description of the VizieR service was published in A&AS 143, 23. This project used data obtained with the Dark Energy Camera (DECam), which was constructed by the Dark Energy Survey (DES) collaborating institutions: Argonne National Lab, University of California Santa Cruz, University of Cambridge, Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas-Madrid, University of Chicago, University College London, DES-Brazil consortium, University of Edinburgh, ETH-Zurich, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Institut de Ciencies de l'Espai, Institut de Fisica d'Altes Energies, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Ludwig-Maximilians Universitat, University of Michigan, National Optical Astronomy Observatory, University of Nottingham, Ohio State University, University of Pennsylvania, University of Portsmouth, SLAC National Lab, Stanford University, University of Sussex, and Texas A&M University. Funding for DES, including DECam, has been provided by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Science Foundation, Ministry of Education and Science (Spain), Science and Technology Facilities Council (UK), Higher Education Funding Council (England), National Center for Supercomputing Applications, Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos, Fundação Carlos Chagas Filho de Amparo a Pesquisa, Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico and the Ministério da Ciência e Tecnologia (Brazil), the German Research Foundation-sponsored cluster of excellence "Origin and Structure of the Universe," and the DES collaborating institutions. The Liverpool Telescope is operated on the island of La Palma by Liverpool John Moores University in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias with financial support from the UK Science and Technology Facilities Council. Based on observations made with the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC), installed in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, in the island of La Palma. This work is partly based on data obtained with the instrument OSIRIS, built by a Consortium led by the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias in collaboration with the Instituto de Astronomía of the Universidad Autónoma de México. OSIRIS was funded by GRANTECAN and the National Plan of Astronomy and Astrophysics of the Spanish Government. Some of the observations reported in this paper were obtained with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT). Polish participation in SALT is funded by grant No. MNiSW DIR/WK/2016/07.
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC), Astronomy Department
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NASA Hubble FellowshipHST-HF2-51408.001-A
Amazon Web ServicesPS IK FY2019 Q3
Department of Energy (DOE)DE-FOA-0001088
Simons FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Knut and Alice Wallenberg FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Gordon and Betty Moore FoundationUNSPECIFIED
National Research Foundation (South Africa)UNSPECIFIED
David and Ellen Lee Postdoctoral ScholarshipUNSPECIFIED
Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (NWO)UNSPECIFIED
Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST)UNSPECIFIED
Brinson FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Australian GovernmentUNSPECIFIED
NASA Earth and Space Science FellowshipASTRO18F-0085
China Scholarship Council201406660015
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)107-2628-M-007-003
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)108-2628-M-007-005-RSP
University of WashingtonUNSPECIFIED
Charles and Lisa Simonyi Fund for Arts and SciencesUNSPECIFIED
Washington Research FoundationUNSPECIFIED
National Science Centre (Poland)2014/14/A/ST9/00121
Department of Energy (DOE)UNSPECIFIED
Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia (MEC)UNSPECIFIED
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)UNSPECIFIED
Higher Education Funding Council for EnglandUNSPECIFIED
National Center for Supercomputing ApplicationsUNSPECIFIED
Kavli Institute for Cosmological PhysicsUNSPECIFIED
Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos (FINEP)UNSPECIFIED
Fundação Carlos Chagas Filho de Amparo a Pesquisa (FAPERJ)UNSPECIFIED
Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq)UNSPECIFIED
Ministério da Ciência e Tecnologia (MCT)UNSPECIFIED
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)UNSPECIFIED
Ministerstwo Nauki i Szkolnictwa Wyższego (MNiSW)UNSPECIFIED
Ministerstwo Nauki i Szkolnictwa Wyższego (MNiSW)DIR/WK/2016/07
Subject Keywords:Neutron stars; Binary stars; Gravitational wave sources; Gravitational waves; Transient sources; Black hole physics; Observational astronomy
Issue or Number:2
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: Neutron stars (1108); Binary stars (154); Gravitational wave sources (677); Gravitational waves (678); Transient sources (1851); Black hole physics (159); Observational astronomy (1145)
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20191120-134817021
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Igor Andreoni et al 2020 ApJ 890 131
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:99960
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:20 Nov 2019 22:23
Last Modified:20 Feb 2020 18:52

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