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Published November 2010 | Supplemental Material + Accepted Version
Journal Article Open

Chronic label-free volumetric photoacoustic microscopy of melanoma cells in three-dimensional porous scaffolds


Visualizing cells in three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds has been one of the major challenges in tissue engineering. Most current imaging modalities either suffer from poor penetration depth or require exogenous contrast agents. Here, we demonstrate photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) of the spatial distribution and temporal proliferation of cells inside three-dimensional porous scaffolds with thicknesses over 1 mm. Specifically, we evaluated the effects of seeding and culture methods on the spatial distribution of melanoma cells. Spatial distribution of the cells in the scaffold was well-resolved in PAM images. Moreover, the number of cells in the scaffold was quantitatively measured from the as-obtained volumetric information. The cell proliferation profile obtained from PAM correlated well with what was obtained using the traditional 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay.

Additional Information

© 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Received 22 June 2010; Accepted 23 July 2010; Available online 19 August 2010. This work was supported in part by an NIH Director's Pioneer Award (DP1 OD000798) and startup funds from Washington University in St. Louis (to Y.X.). This work was also sponsored by NIH grants (R01 EB000712, R01 NS46214, R01 EB008085, and U54 CA136398, to L.V.W.). Part of the work was performed at the Nano Research Facility (NRF), a member of the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network (NNIN), which is supported by the NSF under award ECS-0335765. L.V.W. has a financial interest in Microphotoacoustics, Inc. and Endra, Inc., which, however, did not support this work.

Attached Files

Accepted Version - nihms227380.pdf

Supplemental Material - mmc2.doc


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August 22, 2023
October 20, 2023