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Published September 2017 | Published
Journal Article Open

Assessing the Ability of the DDES Turbulence Modeling Approach to Simulate the Wake of a Bluff Body


A detailed numerical investigation of the flow behind a square cylinder at a Reynolds number of 21,400 is conducted to assess the ability of the delayed detached-eddy simulation (DDES) modeling approach to accurately predict the velocity recovery in the wake of a bluff body. Three-dimensional unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (URANS) and DDES simulations making use of the Spalart–Allmaras turbulence model are carried out using the open-source computational fluid dynamics (CFD) toolbox OpenFOAM-2.1.x, and are compared with available experimental velocity measurements. It is found that the DDES simulation tends to overestimate the averaged streamwise velocity component, especially in the near wake, but a better agreement with the experimental data is observed further downstream of the body. The velocity fluctuations also match reasonably well with the experimental data. Moreover, it is found that the spanwise domain length has a significant impact on the flow, especially regarding the fluctuations of the drag coefficient. Nonetheless, for both the averaged and fluctuating velocity components, the DDES approach is shown to be superior to the URANS approach. Therefore, for engineering purposes, it is found that the DDES approach is a suitable choice to simulate and characterize the velocity recovery in a wake.

Additional Information

© 2017 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). Received: 26 June 2017; Accepted: 28 July 2017; Published: 1 August 2017. Financial support from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) and the Fonds de Recherche du Québec-Nature et Technologies (FRQNT) is gratefully acknowledged by the authors. Computations were performed on the Guillimin and Colosse supercomputers at the CLUMEQ HPC Consortium under the auspices of Compute Canada. Author Contributions: Matthieu Boudreau and Jean-Christophe Veilleux developed the numerical methodology, Matthieu Boudreau and Guy Dumas analyzed the data, and Matthieu Boudreau wrote the paper. The authors declare no conflict of interest. The founding sponsors had no role in the design of the study; in the collection, analyses, or interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript, and in the decision to publish the results.

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