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Published May 28, 2023 | Published
Journal Article Open

Multi-stage Stern–Gerlach experiment modeled


In the classic multi-stage Stern–Gerlach experiment conducted by Frisch and Segrè, the Majorana (Landau–Zener) and Rabi formulae diverge far from the experimental observation while the physical mechanism for electron-spin collapse remains unidentified. Here, introducing the physical co-quantum concept provides a plausible physical mechanism and predicts the experimental observation in absolute units without fitting (i.e. no parameters adjusted), with a p-value less than one per million, which is the probability that the co-quantum theory happens to match the experimental observation purely by chance. Further, the co-quantum concept is corroborated by exactly statistically reproducing the wave function, density operator, and uncertainty relation for electron spin in Stern–Gerlach experiments.

Additional Information

© 2023 The Author(s). Published by IOP Publishing Ltd. Original content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 license. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI. The author thanks Dr Yixuan Tan for discussing the work, translating the German references using Google Translate, and drawing figure 3; Drs Zhe He and Kelvin Titimbo Chaparro for verifying the mathematical derivations and discussing the manuscript; Yixuan Tan, David Garrett, Kelvin Titimbo Chaparro, Siddik Suleyman Kahraman, and Zhe He for verifying CQD numerically (to be reported); Professor JT Shen and Mr. Siddik Suleyman Kahraman for discussing the manuscript; Professor Naisyin Wang and Mr. Sean Wang for discussing the statistics; Dr Victor Wang for discussing the math; and Professor James Ballard for editing an early version of the manuscript. Data availability statement. All data that support the findings of this study are included within the article (and any supplementary files).

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Published - Wang_2023_J._Phys._B__At._Mol._Opt._Phys._56_105001.pdf


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August 22, 2023
October 20, 2023