Sources of Fine Organic Aerosol. 6. Cigarette Smoke in the Urban Atmosphere
Molecular marker compounds that can be used to trace cigarette smoke particles in the outdoor urban atmosphere are identified. While the most abundant resolved organic compounds present are nitrogen-containing heterocyclics (e.g., nicotine), other potential tracers that will be more stable in the outdoor urban atmosphere also are found. Iso- and anteisoalkanes (C_(29)-C_(34)) are enriched in cigarette smoke particles and show a concentration pattern characteristic of tobacco leaf surface waxes that is distinctly different from leaf surface abrasion products shed from plant leaves that grow in the Los Angeles area. Relative to major leaf surface wax n-alkanes, these iso- and anteisoalkanes are enriched by a factor of more than 40 in tobacco and tobacco smoke particles as compared to leaf surface waxes from Los Angeles area plants. It is found that the iso- and anteisoalkanes concentration pattern generated by cigarette smoke is preserved in the urban atmosphere and is measured at levels that are comparable to emissions estimates based on daily cigarette consumption. Using these marker compounds, ambient fine cigarette smoke particles are estimated to be present at a concentration of 0.28-0.36 µg m^(-3) in the Los Angeles outdoor air, accounting for 1.0-1.3% of the fine particle mass concentration.
© 1994 American Chemical Society. Received for review February 4, 1994. Accepted March 1, 1994. Abstract published in Advance ACS Abstracts, April 1, 1994. We thank Ed Ruth for his assistance with the acquisition of the mass spectrometry data and Christos Christoforou as well as Joseph Fontana for their assistance during the cigarette smoke experiments. This research was supported by the California Air Resources Board under Agreement A932-127. Portions of the work benefited from research supported by the US. Environmental Protection Agency under Agreement R-813277-01-0 and by the South Coast Air Quality Management District. Partial funding also was provided by the US. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC02-76CH00016. The statements and conclusions in the report are those of the contractor and not necessarily those of the California Air Resources Board. The mention of commercial products, their source, or their use in connection with material reported herein is not to be construed as actual or implied endorsement of such products. This paper has not been subject to the EPA's peer and policy review and, hence, does not necessarily reflect the views of the EPA.