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Published September 30, 2003 | Published
Journal Article Open

A model for the cooperative free energy transduction and kinetics of ATP hydrolysis by F-1-ATPase


Although the binding change mechanism of rotary catalysis by which F1-ATPase hydrolyzes ATP has been supported by equilibrium, kinetic, and structural observations, many questions concerning the function remain unanswered. Because of the importance of this enzyme, the search for a full understanding of its mechanism is a key problem in structural biology. Making use of the results of free energy simulation and experimental binding constant measurements, a model is developed for the free energy change during the hydrolysis cycle. This model makes possible the development of a kinetic scheme for ATP hydrolysis by F-1-ATPase, in which the rate constants are associated with specific configurations of the beta subunits. An essential new element is that the strong binding site for ADP,Pi is shown to be the beta(DP) site, in contrast to the strong binding site for ATP, which is beta(TP). This result provides a rationale for the rotation of the y subunit, which induces the cooperativity required for a tri-site binding change mechanism. The model explains a series of experimental data, including the ATP concentration dependence of the rate of hydrolysis and catalytic site occupation for both the Escherichia coli F1-ATPase (EcF(1)) and Thermophilic Bacillus PS3 F-1-ATPase (TF1), which have different behavior.

Additional Information

© 2003 by the National Academy of Sciences. Contributed by Rudolph A. Marcus, July 3, 2003. Published online before print September 18, 2003, 10.1073/pnas.1334188100 We thank Aaron Dinner and George Oster for helpful comments on the manuscript. This work was supported in part by a grant from the National Institutes of Health (to M.K.) and grants from the National Science Foundation and the Office of Naval Research (to R.A.M.). Supporting information http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/1334188100/DC1

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