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Published February 1, 2021 | public
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Optimization of the JUNO liquid scintillator composition using a Daya Bay antineutrino detector

Abusleme, A.
Adam, T.
Ahmad, S.
Aiello, S.
Akram, M.
Ali, N.
An, F. P.
An, G. P.
An, Q.
Andronico, G.
Anfimov, N.
Antonelli, V.
Antoshkina, T.
Asavapibhop, B.
de André, J. P. A. M.
Babic, A.
Balantekin, A.B.
Baldini, W.
Baldoncini, M.
Band, H. R.
Barresi, A.
Baussan, E.
Bellato, M.
Bernieri, E.
Biare, D.
Birkenfeld, T.
Bishai, M.
Blin, S.
Blum, D.
Blyth, S.
Bordereau, C.
Brigatti, A.
Brugnera, R.
Budano, A.
Burgbacher, P.
Buscemi, M.
Bussino, S.
Busto, J.
Butorov, I.
Cabrera, A.
Cai, H.
Cai, X.
Cai, Y. K.
Cai, Z. Y.
Cammi, A.
Campeny, A.
Cao, C. Y.
Cao, G. F.
Cao, J.
Caruso, R.
Cerna, C.
Chakaberia, I.
Chang, J. F.
Chang, Y.
Chen, H. S.
Chen, P. A.
Chen, P. P.
Chen, S. M.
Chen, S. J.
Chen, X. R.
Chen, Y. W.
Chen, Y. X.
Chen, Y.
Chen, Z.
Cheng, J.
Cheng, Y. P.
Cheng, Z. K.
Chepurnov, A.
Cherwinka, J. J.
Chiarello, F.
Chiesa, D.
Chimenti, P.
Chu, M. C.
Chukanov, A.
Chuvashova, A.
Clerbaux, B.
Conforti Di Lorenzo, S.
Corti, D.
Costa, S.
Corso, F. D.
Cummings, J. P.
Dalager, O.
De La Taille, C.
Deng, F. S.
Deng, J. W.
Deng, Z.
Deng, Z. Y.
Depnering, W.
Diaz, M.
Ding, X. F.
Ding, Y. Y.
Dirgantara, B.
Dmitrievsky, S.
Diwan, M. V.
Dohnal, T.
Donchenko, G.
Dong, J. M.
Dornic, D.
Doroshkevich, E.
Dove, J.
Dracos, M.
Druillole, F.
Du, S. X.
Dusini, S.
Dvorak, M.
Dwyer, D. A.
Enqvist, T.
Enzmann, H.
Fabbri, A.
Fajt, L.
Fan, D. H.
Fan, L.
Fang, C.
Fang, J.
Fatkina, A.
Fedoseev, D.
Fekete, V.
Feng, L. C.
Feng, Q. C.
Fiorentini, G.
Ford, R.
Formozov, A.
Fournier, A.
Franke, S.
Gallo, J. P.
Gan, H. N.
Gao, F.
Garfagnini, A.
Göttel, A.
Genster, C.
Giammarchi, M.
Giaz, A.
Giudice, N.
Giuliani, F.
Gonchar, M.
Gong, G. H.
Gong, H.
Gorchakov, O.
Gornushkin, Y.
Grassi, M.
Grewing, C.
Gromov, M.
Gromov, V.
Gu, M. H.
Gu, W. Q.
Gu, X. F.
Gu, Y.
Guan, M. Y.
Guardone, N.
Gul, M.
Guo, C.
Guo, J. Y.
Guo, L.
Guo, W. L.
Guo, X. H.
Guo, Y. H.
Guo, Z.
Haacke, M.
Hackenburg, R. W.
Hackspacher, P.
Hagner, C.
Han, R.
Han, Y.
Hans, S.
He, M.
He, W.
Heeger, K. M.
Heinz, T.
Heng, Y. K.
Herrera, R.
Higuera, A.
Hong, D. J.
Hor, Y. K.
Hou, S. J.
Hsiung, Y. B.
Hu, B. Z.
Hu, H.
Hu, J. R.
Hu, J.
Hu, S. Y.
Hu, T.
Hu, Z. J.
Huang, C. H.
Huang, G. H.
Huang, H. X.
Huang, Q. H.
Huang, W. H.
Huang, X. T.
Huang, Y. B.
Huber, P.
Hui, J. Q.
Huo, L.
Huo, W. J.
Huss, C.
Hussain, S.
Insolia, A.
Ioannisian, A.
Ioannisyan, D.
Isocrate, R.
Jaffe, D. E.
Jen, K. L.
Ji, X. L.
Ji, X. P.
Ji, X. Z.
Jia, H. H.
Jia, J. J.
Jian, S. Y.
Jiang, D.
Jiang, X. S.
Jin, R. Y.
Jing, X. P.
Johnson, R. A.
Jollet, C.
Jones, D.
Joutsenvaara, J.
Jungthawan, S.
Kalousis, L.
Kampmann, P.
Kang, L.
Karagounis, M.
Kazarian, N.
Kettell, S. H.
Khan, A.
Khan, W.
Khosonthongkee, K.
Kinz, P.
Kohn, S.
Korablev, D.
Kouzakov, K.
Kramer, M.
Krasnoperov, A.
Krokhaleva, S.
Krumshteyn, Z.
Kruth, A.
Kutovskiy, N.
Kuusiniemi, P.
Lachacinski, B.
Lachenmaier, T.
Landini, C.
Langford, T. J.
Lee, J.
Lee, J. H. C.
Lefevre, F.
Lei, L.
Lei, R.
Leitner, R.
Leung, J.
Li, C.
Li, D. M.
Li, F.
Li, F.
Li, H. T.
Li, H. L.
Li, J.
Li, J. J.
Li, J. Q.
Li, K. J.
Li, M. Z.
Li, N.
Li, N.
Li, Q. J.
Li, Q. J.
Li, R. H.
Li, S. C.
Li, S. F.
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Li, T.
Li, T.
Li, W. D.
Li, W. G.
Li, X. M.
Li, X. N.
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Li, X. Q.
Li, Y.
Li, Y. F.
Li, Z. B.
Li, Z. Y.
Liang, H.
Liang, H.
Liang, J. J.
Liebau, D.
Limphirat, A.
Limpijumnong, S.
Lin, C. J.
Lin, G. L.
Lin, S. X.
Lin, T.
Lin, Y. H.
Ling, J. J.
Link, J. M.
Lippi, I.
Littenberg, L.
Littlejohn, B. R.
Liu, F.
Liu, H.
Liu, H.
Liu, H. B.
Liu, H. D.
Liu, H. J.
Liu, H. T.
Liu, J. C.
Liu, J. L.
Liu, M.
Liu, Q.
Liu, Q.
Liu, R. X.
Liu, S. Y.
Liu, S. B.
Liu, S. L.
Liu, X. W.
Liu, Y.
Lokhov, A.
Lombardi, P.
Loo, K.
Lorenz, S.
Lu, C.
Lu, C.
Lu, H. Q.
Lu, J. B.
Lu, J. G.
Lu, S. X.
Lu, X. X.
Lubsandorzhiev, B.
Lubsandorzhiev, S.
Ludhova, L.
Luk, K. B.
Luo, F. J.
Luo, G.
Luo, P. W.
Luo, S.
Luo, W. M.
Lyashuk, V.
Ma, Q. M.
Ma, S.
Ma, X. B.
Ma, X. Y.
Ma, Y. Q.
Malyshkin, Y.
Mantovani, F.
Mao, Y. J.
Mari, S. M.
Marini, F.
Marium, S.
Marshall, C.
Martellini, C.
Martin-Chassard, G.
Martinez Caicedo, D. A.
Martini, A.
Martino, J.
Mayilyan, D.
McDonald, K. T.
McKeown, R. D.
Müller, A.
Meng, G.
Meng, Y.
Meregaglia, A.
Meroni, E.
Meyhöfer, D.
Mezzetto, M.
Miller, J.
Miramonti, L.
Monforte, S.
Montini, P.
Montuschi, M.
Morozov, N.
Muralidharan, P.
Napolitano, J.
Nastasi, M.
Naumov, D. V.
Naumova, E.
Nemchenok, I.
Nikolaev, A.
Ning, F. P.
Ning, Z.
Nunokawa, H.
Oberauer, L.
Ochoa-Ricoux, J. P.
Olshevskiy, A.
Ortica, F.
Pan, H. R.
Paoloni, A.
Park, J.
Parkalian, N.
Parmeggiano, S.
Patton, S.
Payupol, T.
Pec, V.
Pedretti, D.
Pei, Y. T.
Pelliccia, N.
Peng, A. G.
Peng, H. P.
Peng, J. C.
Perrot, F.
Petitjean, P. A.
Pineres Rico, L. F.
Popov, A.
Poussot, P.
Pratumwan, W.
Previtali, E.
Pun, C. S. J.
Qi, F. Z.
Qi, M.
Qian, S.
Qian, X.
Qian, X. H.
Qiao, H.
Qin, Z. H.
Qiu, S. K.
Rajput, M.
Ranucci, G.
Raper, N.
Re, A.
Rebber, H.
Rebii, A.
Ren, B.
Ren, J.
Reveco, C. M.
Rezinko, T.
Ricci, B.
Robens, M.
Roche, M.
Rodphai, N.
Rohwer, L.
Romani, A.
Rosero, R.
Roskovec, B.
Roth, C.
Ruan, X. C.
Ruan, X. D.
Rujirawat, S.
Rybnikov, A.
Sadovsky, A.
Saggese, P.
Salamanna, G.
Sangka, A.
Sanguansak, N.
Sawangwit, U.
Sawatzki, J.
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Schever, M.
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Schweizer, K.
Selivanov, D.
Selyunin, A.
Serafini, A.
Settanta, G.
Settimo, M.
Shahzad, M.
Shi, G.
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Shi, Y. J.
Shutov, V.
Sidorenkov, A.
Simkovic, F.
Sirignano, C.
Siripak, J.
Sisti, M.
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Smirnov, M.
Smirnov, O.
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Soonthornthum, B.
Sotnikov, A.
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Stefanik, D.
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Walker, P.
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To maximize the light yield of the liquid scintillator (LS) for the Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO), a 20 t LS sample was produced in a pilot plant at Daya Bay. The optical properties of the new LS in various compositions were studied by replacing the gadolinium-loaded LS in one antineutrino detector. The concentrations of the fluor, PPO, and the wavelength shifter, bis-MSB, were increased in 12 steps from 0.5 g/L and <0.01 mg/L to 4 g/L and 13 mg/L, respectively. The numbers of total detected photoelectrons suggest that, with the optically purified solvent, the bis-MSB concentration does not need to be more than 4 mg/L. To bridge the one order of magnitude in the detector size difference between Daya Bay and JUNO, the Daya Bay data were used to tune the parameters of a newly developed optical model. Then, the model and tuned parameters were used in the JUNO simulation. This enabled to determine the optimal composition for the JUNO LS: purified solvent LAB with 2.5 g/L PPO, and 1 to 4 mg/L bis-MSB.

Additional Information

© 2020 Elsevier B.V. Received 24 July 2020, Revised 13 October 2020, Accepted 27 October 2020, Available online 6 November 2020. We are grateful for the ongoing cooperation from the China General Nuclear Power Group and China Light and Power Company. Daya Bay is supported in part by the Ministry of Science and Technology of China, the U.S. Department of Energy, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the CAS Center for Excellence in Particle Physics, the National Natural Science Foundation of China, the Guangdong provincial government, the Shenzhen municipal government, the China General Nuclear Power Group, the Research Grants Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China, the MOE in Taiwan, the U.S. National Science Foundation, the Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sports of the Czech Republic, the Charles University Research Centre UNCE, the Joint Institute of Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia, the National Commission of Scientific and Technological Research of Chile, We acknowledge Yellow River Engineering Consulting Co., Ltd., and China Railway 15th Bureau Group Co., Ltd., for building the underground laboratory. JUNO is supported by the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the National Key R&D Program of China, the CAS Center for Excellence in Particle Physics, the Joint Large-Scale Scientific Facility Funds of the NSFC and CAS, Wuyi University, and the Tsung-Dao Lee Institute of Shanghai Jiao Tong University in China, the Institut National de Physique Nucléaire et de Physique de Particules (IN2P3) in France, the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) in Italy, the Fond de la Recherche Scientifique (F.R.S-FNRS) and FWO under the "Excellence of Science C EOS in Belgium", the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnològico in Brazil, the Agencia Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo in Chile, the Charles University Research Centre and the Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sports in Czech Republic, the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), the Helmholtz Association, and the Cluster of Excellence PRISMA+ in Germany, the Joint Institute of Nuclear Research (JINR), Lomonosov Moscow State University, and Russian Foundation for Basic Research (RFBR) in Russia, the MOST and MOE in Taiwan, the Chulalongkorn University and Suranaree University of Technology in Thailand , and the University of California at Irvine in USA. The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper.

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August 22, 2023
August 22, 2023