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Published September 2013 | Accepted Version
Journal Article Open

Photoacoustic microscopy

Abstract

Photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) is a hybrid in vivo imaging technique that acoustically detects optical contrast via the photoacoustic effect. Unlike pure optical microscopic techniques, PAM takes advantage of the weak acoustic scattering in tissue and thus breaks through the optical diffusion limit (∼1 mm in soft tissue). With its excellent scalability, PAM can provide high-resolution images at desired maximum imaging depths up to a few millimeters. Compared with backscattering-based confocal microscopy and optical coherence tomography, PAM provides absorption contrast instead of scattering contrast. Furthermore, PAM can image more molecules, endogenous or exogenous, at their absorbing wavelengths than fluorescence-based methods, such as wide-field, confocal, and multi-photon microscopy. Most importantly, PAM can simultaneously image anatomical, functional, molecular, flow dynamic and metabolic contrasts in vivo. Focusing on state-of-the-art developments in PAM, this Review discusses the key features of PAM implementations and their applications in biomedical studies.

Additional Information

© 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. The authors appreciate Prof. James Ballard's close reading of the manuscript and useful discussions from Konstantin Maslov, Lidai Wang, Chi Zhang, Dakang Yao, Amos Danielli, Arie Krumholz and Amy Winkler. This work was sponsored by National Institutes of Health (NIH) grants R01 EB000712, R01 EB008085, R01 CA134539, U54 CA136398, R01 CA157277, and R01 CA159959. L. Wang has a financial interest in Endra, Inc., and Microphotoacoustics, Inc., which, however, did not support this work.

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August 22, 2023
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