Ultralow-threshold erbium-implanted toroidal microlaser on silicon
We present an erbium-doped microlaser on silicon operating at a wavelength of 1.5 mum that operates at a launched pump threshold as low as 4.5 muW. The 40 mum diameter toroidal microresonator is made using a combination of erbium ion implantation, photolithography, wet and dry etching, and laser annealing, using a thermally grown SiO2 film on a Si substrate as a starting material. The microlaser, doped with an average Er concentration of 2x10^(19) cm(-3), is pumped at 1480 nm using an evanescently coupled tapered optical fiber. Cavity quality factors as high as 3.9x10^(7) are achieved, corresponding to a modal loss of 0.007 dB/cm, and single-mode lasing is observed.