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Published March 3, 2014 | Published
Book Section - Chapter Open

Localized fluorescence excitation in opaque media by time-reversed ultrasonically encoded (TRUE) optical focusing


To focus light beyond one transport mean free path, time-reversed ultrasonically encoded (TRUE) optical focusing has previously been implemented by both analog and digital devices. By allowing wavefront recording with finer resolution and larger aperture, the analog scheme, which uses photorefractive materials as the phase-conjugate mirror, generates a more complete set of time-reversed optical modes than the digital scheme. Here, we report the direct visualization of localized fluorescence excitation inside a turbid medium by photorefractive time reversal. Further, we imaged fluorescent targets embedded in a turbid phantom whose thickness was four transport mean free paths.

Additional Information

© 2014 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers. We would like to thank Nitto Denko Technical (Oceanside, CA, USA) for providing the photorefractive polymer for this research. This work was sponsored in part by the National Academies Keck Futures Initiative grant IS 13 and National Institute of Health grants DPI EB016986 (NIH Director's Pioneer Award), R01 EB000712 and U54 CA136398.

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