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Published April 5, 2023 | Supplemental Material + Published
Journal Article Open

Real-time observation of optical rogue waves in spatiotemporally mode-locked fiber lasers


Fiber lasers offer tabletop nonlinear environments to mimic and study the complex dynamics of nature. Optical rogue waves, rarely occurring extreme intensity fluctuations, are one of the many subjects that can be investigated with a fiber laser cavity. Although oceanic rogue waves are a result of spatiotemporal dynamics, the single-mode nature of the fiber laser and the commonly used measurement techniques limit the optical rogue wave studies to only temporal dynamics. In this study, we overcome such limit to observe rogue wave real-time dynamics in spatiotemporally mode-locked fiber lasers by utilizing state-of-the-art compressed ultrafast photography technique. The multimode laser cavity exhibits long-tailed non-Gaussian distributions under relaxed cavity constraints. Single-shot spatiotemporal measurements of rogue events showed that, instead of noise bursts, the cavity produces clean pulses with high-quality beam profiles. Our results indicate that rogue events in spatiotemporally mode-locked fiber lasers undergo nonlinear spatial transformation due to a power-dependent consistent attractor.

Additional Information

© The Author(s) 2023. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. We thank Manxiu Cui and Xin Tong for fruitful discussions. We received no specific funding for this work. Contributions. U.T. designed and conducted the experiments with the assistance of P.W. on ultrafast imaging techniques. L.V.W. supervised the project. All authors wrote and revised the manuscript. Data availability. The data that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request and in the Supplementary Information. Supplementary Movies 1–4 contain further information on example rogue events and pulses with low intensities. Code availability. The reconstruction algorithm is described in detail in Methods and Supplementary Information. We have opted not to make the computer code publicly available because the code is proprietary and used for other projects. Competing interests. The authors disclose the following patent applications: WO2016085571 A3 (L.V.W.), U.S. Provisional 62/298,552 (L.V.W.), and U.S. Provisional 62/904,442 (L.V.W. and P.W.). The other authors declare no competing financial interests.

Attached Files

Published - s42005-023-01185-1.pdf

Supplemental Material - 42005_2023_1185_MOESM1_ESM.pdf

Supplemental Material - 42005_2023_1185_MOESM2_ESM.docx

Supplemental Material - 42005_2023_1185_MOESM3_ESM.mp4

Supplemental Material - 42005_2023_1185_MOESM4_ESM.mp4

Supplemental Material - 42005_2023_1185_MOESM5_ESM.mp4

Supplemental Material - 42005_2023_1185_MOESM6_ESM.mp4


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August 22, 2023
October 18, 2023