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Published May 13, 2013 | Published
Journal Article Open

Intracellular temperature mapping with fluorescence-assisted photoacoustic-thermometry


Measuring intracellular temperature is critical to understanding many cellular functions but still remains challenging. Here, we present a technique–fluorescence-assisted photoacoustic thermometry (FAPT)–for intracellular temperature mapping applications. To demonstrate FAPT, we monitored the intracellular temperature distribution of HeLa cells with sub-degree (0.7 °C) temperature resolution and sub-micron (0.23 μm) spatial resolution at a sampling rate of 1 kHz. Compared to traditional fluorescence-based methods, FAPT features the unique capability of transforming a regular fluorescence probe into a concentration- and excitation-independent temperature sensor, bringing a large collection of commercially available generic fluorescent probes into the realm of intracellular temperature sensing.

Additional Information

© 2013 AIP Publishing LLC. Received 8 March 2013; accepted 3 May 2013; published online 16 May 2013. We would like to thank Dr. Lijun Ma, Dr. Lidai Wang, Yan Liu, and Yu Wang for their constructive suggestions on the experiments. This work was sponsored by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) under Grant Nos. R01 EB000712, R01 EB008085, R01 CA134539, U54 CA136398, R01 CA157277, R01 CA159959, and DP1 EB016986 (NIH Director's Pioneer Award). L. V. Wang has a financial interest in Microphotoacoustics, Inc., and Endra, Inc.; however, neither provided support for this work.

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