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Published June 15, 2014 | Published
Journal Article Open

Continuous scanning of a time-reversed ultrasonically encoded optical focus by reflection-mode digital phase conjugation


Time-reversed ultrasonically encoded (TRUE) optical focusing in turbid media was previously implemented using both analog and digital phase conjugation. The digital approach, in addition to its large energy gain, can improve the focal intensity and resolution by iterative focusing. However, performing iterative focusing at each focal position can be time-consuming. Here, we show that by gradually moving the focal position, the TRUE focal intensity is improved, as in iterative focusing at a fixed position, and can be continuously scanned to image fluorescent targets in a shorter time. In addition, our setup is, to the best of our knowledge, the first demonstration of TRUE focusing using a digital phase conjugate mirror in a reflection mode, which is more suitable for practical applications.

Additional Information

© 2014 Optical Society of America. Received December 12, 2013; revised April 7, 2014; accepted April 25, 2014; posted May 7, 2014 (Doc. ID 202448); published June 4, 2014. We thank James Ballard and Xiao Xu for editing the manuscript. This work was sponsored in part by National Institutes of Health grants DP1 EB016986 (NIH Director's Pioneer Award) and R01 CA186567 (NIH Director's Transformative Research Award). L.W. has a financial interest in Microphotoacoustics, Inc. and Endra, Inc., which, however, did not support this work.

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