Quantum mechanics based multiscale modeling of stress-induced phase transformations in iron
The ground state crystal structure of Fe, ferromagnetic body-centered cubic (bcc), undergoes a stress-induced martensitic phase transformation to a hexagonally close-packed (hcp) structure. Both bcc and hcp have been observed to coexist over a large range deformations, such that the nonlinearities in the constitutive behavior of each phase need to be included for an accurate description. We present herein a methodology to construct high-fidelity quantum mechanics based nonlinear elastic energy densities, amenable to be included in microstructural optimization procedures like sequential lamination. We use the model to show that the transition pressure (TP) has a strong dependence on relatively small amounts of shear deformation, and to investigate the value of the TP under uniaxial compressions, presumably found in shock-loaded materials. Results hint that more complex deformation patterns may need be present to be consistent with measured experimental values.
© 2006 Elsevier. Received 15 August 2005, Revised 3 November 2005, Accepted 19 November 2005, Available online 10 February 2006. We gratefully acknowledge support through Caltech's DOE ASCI/ASAP Center for the Simulation for the Dynamic Response of Materials and from the Office of Naval Research. We also acknowledge Dr. Matt Fago, whose implementation of the lamination algorithm of (Aubry et al., 2003) is employed in this work.