Transvaginal fast-scanning optical-resolution photoacoustic endoscopy
Photoacoustic endoscopy offers in vivo examination of the visceral tissue using endogenous contrast, but its typical B-scan rate is ∼10 Hz, restricted by the speed of the scanning unit and the laser pulse repetition rate. Here, we present a transvaginal fast-scanning optical-resolution photoacoustic endoscope with a 250-Hz B-scan rate over a 3-mm scanning range. Using this modality, we not only illustrated the morphological differences of vasculatures among the human ectocervix, uterine body, and sublingual mucosa but also showed the longitudinal and cross-sectional differences of cervical vasculatures in pregnant women. This technology is promising for screening the visceral pathological changes associated with angiogenesis.
Additional Information© 2018 The Authors. Published by SPIE under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. Distribution or reproduction of this work in whole or in part requires full attribution of the original publication, including its DOI. Paper 180497SSLR received Aug. 15, 2018; accepted for publication Nov. 5, 2018; published online Dec. 5, 2018. We thank Professor James Ballard for proofreading the paper, Alicia Brueggemann, and Emma Altieri for their help in the study. This project was supported in part by the March of Dimes Prematurity Research Center (3125-17303A) and the National Institutes of Health Grant Nos. DP1 EB016986 (NIH Director's Pioneer Award) and R01 CA186567 (NIH Director's Transformative Research Award). Disclosures: K. Maslov has a financial interest in Microphotoacoustics, Inc. L. V. Wang has a financial interest in Microphotoacoustics, Inc., CalPACT, LLC, and Union Photoacoustic Technologies, Ltd., which, however, did not support this work.
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