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Published October 11, 2020 | Published + Accepted Version
Journal Article Open

The slow demise of the long-lived SN 2005ip


The Type IIn supernova (SN IIn) 2005ip is one of the most well-studied and long-lasting examples of an SN interacting with its circumstellar environment. The optical light curve plateaued at a nearly constant level for more than five years, suggesting ongoing shock interaction with an extended and clumpy circumstellar medium (CSM). Here, we present continued observations of the SN from ∼1000 to 5000 d post-explosion at all wavelengths, including X-ray, ultraviolet, near-infrared (NIR), and mid-infrared. The UV spectra probe the pre-explosion mass loss and show evidence for CNO processing. From the bolometric light curve, we find that the total radiated energy is in excess of 10⁵⁰ erg, the progenitor star's pre-explosion mass-loss rate was ≳1×10⁻²M_⊙ yr⁻¹⁠, and the total mass lost shortly before explosion was ≳1 M_⊙⁠, though the mass lost could have been considerably larger depending on the efficiency for the conversion of kinetic energy to radiation. The ultraviolet through NIR spectrum is characterized by two high-density components, one with narrow high-ionization lines, and one with broader low-ionization H I, He I, [O I], Mg II, and Fe II lines. The rich Fe II spectrum is strongly affected by Lyα fluorescence, consistent with spectral modelling. Both the Balmer and He I lines indicate a decreasing CSM density during the late interaction period. We find similarities to SN 1988Z, which shows a comparable change in spectrum at around the same time during its very slow decline. These results suggest that, at long last, the shock interaction in SN 2005ip may finally be on the decline.

Additional Information

© 2020 The Author(s). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model). Accepted 2020 July 28. Received 2020 July 10; in original form 2020 May 22. We thank the anonymous referee for suggestions that improved this paper. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA); the Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. The authors wish to recognize and acknowledge the very significant cultural role and reverence that the summit of Maunakea has always had within the indigenous Hawaiian community; we are most fortunate to have the opportunity to conduct observations from this mountain. We thank WeiKang Zheng for helping obtain Keck optical photometry and spectroscopy. When the data reported here were acquired, the United Kingdom InfraRed Telescope (UKIRT) was supported by NASA and operated under an agreement among the University of Hawaii, the University of Arizona, and Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center; operations were enabled through the cooperation of the East Asian Observatory. The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) is an international collaboration among institutions in the United States, Italy, and Germany. The LBT Corporation partners are The University of Arizona on behalf of the Arizona university system; Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Italy; LBT Beteiligungsgesellschaft, Germany, representing the Max Planck Society, the Astrophysical Institute Potsdam, and Heidelberg University; The Ohio State University; The Research Corporation, on behalf of The University of Notre Dame, University of Minnesota and University of Virginia. Observations reported here were obtained at the Multiple Mirror Telescope (MMT) Observatory, a joint facility of the University of Arizona and the Smithsonian Institution. This publication makes use of data products from the 2MASS, which is a joint project of the University of Massachusetts and the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center/California Institute of Technology, funded by NASA and the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF). This work is based in part on observations obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA. Financial support for this work was provided by NASA through grants GO-10877, GO-13287, GO-14598, GO-14688, and GO-15166 from the STScI, which is operated by the Associated Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. (AURA), under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. AVF's supernova group has also been supported by NASA/Chandra grant GO7-18067X, the Christopher R. Redlich Fund, the TABASGO Foundation, NSF grant AST-1211916, and the Miller Institute for Basic Research in Science (U.C. Berkeley). CF acknowledges support from the Swedish Research Council and Swedish National Space Board. MDS is supported by generous grants (13261 and 28021) from Villum Fonden and by a project grant (8021-00170B) from the Independent Research Fund Denmark. TS is supported by the GINOP-2-3-2-15-2016-00033 project ('Transient Astrophysical Objects') of the National Research, Development and Innovation Office (NKFIH), Hungary, funded by the European Union. DATA AVAILABILITY. The data underlying this article will be shared on reasonable request to the corresponding author.

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August 19, 2023
August 19, 2023