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Published August 8, 2022 | Supplemental Material
Journal Article Open

Tuning the Performance of Negative Tone Electron Beam Resists for the Next Generation Lithography


A new class of electron bean negative tone resist materials has been developed based on heterometallic rings. The initial resist performance demonstrates a resolution of 15 nm half-pitch but at the expense of a low sensitivity. To improve sensitivity a 3D Monte Carlo simulation is used that utilizes a secondary and Auger electron generation model. The simulation suggests that the sensitivity can be dramatically improved while maintaining high resolution by incorporating appropriate chemical functionality around the metal–organic core. The new resists designs based on the simulation have the increased sensitivity expected and illustrate the value of the simulation approach.

Additional Information

© 2022 The Authors. Advanced Functional Materials published by Wiley-VCH GmbH. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Version of Record online: 27 May 2022; Manuscript revised: 22 April 2022; Manuscript received: 08 March 2022. This work was supported by the EPSRC (UK) (EP/P000444/1 and EP/R023158/1) including an Established Career Fellowship to R.E.P.W. (EP/R011079/1) and by an Innovate UK award (Project Number 18238). The authors gratefully acknowledge critical support and infrastructure provided for this work by the Kavli Nanoscience Institute at Caltech. The authors declare no conflict of interest. Data Availability Statement: The data that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.

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August 22, 2023
October 24, 2023