An Integrated Slot-Ring Traveling-Wave Radiator
Electromagnetic duality is used to design a multi-port traveling-wave slot-ring antenna with on-chip driver circuitry to create a fully integrated radiator. By creating a slot version of the multi-port driven antenna, the required exclusive use area of the antenna is significantly decreased, while still being able to perform impedance matching, power combining, and power transfer off chip through electromagnetic radiation in a single step. The driver core consists of an oscillator followed by three amplification stages. A split path inductor design was utilized to reduce the radiator's dependence on process variation in the metal stack while ensuring proper isolation between the four quadrature paths. The slot radiator has a simulated antenna efficiency of 39% and a measured single-element effective isotropic radiated power of 6.0 dBm with a total radiated power of -1.3 dBm at 134.5 GHz.
© 2015 IEEE. Manuscript received September 07, 2014; revised January 22, 2015; accepted February 11, 2015. Date of publication March 06, 2015; date of current version April 02, 2015. This paper is an expanded version from the IEEE RFIC Symposium, Tampa Bay, FL, USA, June 1–3 2014. The authors thank K. Dasgupta, A. Pai, and B. Hong, all with the California Institute of Technology, for technical discussions, and S. Raman, formerly with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), and T. Quach, Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) for support.