Handheld photoacoustic probe to detect both melanoma depth and volume at high speed in vivo
We applied a linear-array-based photoacoustic probe to detect melanin-containing melanoma tumor depth and volume in nude mice in vivo. This system can image melanomas at five frames per second (fps), which is much faster than our previous handheld single transducer system (0.1 fps). We first theoretically show that, in addition to the higher frame rate, almost the entire boundary of the melanoma can be detected by the linear-array-based probe, while only the horizontal boundary could be detected by the previous system. Then we demonstrate the ability of this linear-array-based system in measuring both the depth and volume of melanoma through phantom, ex vivo, and in vivo experiments. The volume detection ability also enables us to accurately calculate the rate of growth of the tumor, which is an important parameter in quantifying the tumor activity. Our results show that this system can be used for clinical melanoma diagnosis and treatment in humans at the bedside.
© 2015 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Received 25 November 2014, revised 5 January 2015, accepted 6 January 2015; Published online 10 February 2015. The authors would like to thank Prof. James Ballard for manuscript editing. This work was sponsored in part by National Institutes of Health grants DP1 EB016986 (NIH Director's Pioneer Award), R01 CA186567 (NIH Director's Transformative Research Award), R01 EB016963, S10 RR026922, and R01 CA159959. L.W. has a financial interest in Microphotoacoustics, Inc. and Endra, Inc., which, however, did not support this work.
Supplemental Material - jbio201400143-sup-0001-author-biographies.pdf
Accepted Version - nihms-669652.pdf