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Published February 24, 2015 | Accepted Version + Supplemental Material
Journal Article Open

Optical Drug Monitoring: Photoacoustic Imaging of Nanosensors to Monitor Therapeutic Lithium in Vivo


Personalized medicine could revolutionize how primary care physicians treat chronic disease and how researchers study fundamental biological questions. To realize this goal, we need to develop more robust, modular tools and imaging approaches for in vivo monitoring of analytes. In this report, we demonstrate that synthetic nanosensors can measure physiologic parameters with photoacoustic contrast, and we apply that platform to continuously track lithium levels in vivo. Photoacoustic imaging achieves imaging depths that are unattainable with fluorescence or multiphoton microscopy. We validated the photoacoustic results that illustrate the superior imaging depth and quality of photoacoustic imaging with optical measurements. This powerful combination of techniques will unlock the ability to measure analyte changes in deep tissue and will open up photoacoustic imaging as a diagnostic tool for continuous physiological tracking of a wide range of analytes.

Additional Information

© 2015 American Chemical Society. Received for review November 13, 2014 and accepted January 14, 2015. Published online January 14, 2015. This work was supported by the NIBIB under award number F32EB015270 (to K.J.C.), the NIGMS under award number R01 GM084366 (to H.A.C.), the NINDS under award number R01 NS081641 (to H.A.C.), the National Institutes of Health grants DP1 EB016986 (NIH Director's Pioneer Award, L.V.W.), R01 CA186567 (NIH Director's Transformative Research Award, L.V.W.), and R01 CA157277 (L.V.W.). We would like to thank several other researchers for their contributions. C. Kakidas assisted with initial lithium nanosensor formulation and M. R. Chatni made initial photoacoustic measurements. L. Li assisted with setting up the photoacoustic imaging system. C. G. Skipwith acquired SEMimages of the nanosensors. C. G. Skipwith and T. T. Ruckh carefully read the manuscript. The authors declare the following competing financial interest(s): L.V.W. has a financial interest in Microphotoacoustics, Inc., and Endra, Inc., which, however, did not support this work.

Attached Files

Accepted Version - nihms-670759.pdf

Supplemental Material - nn5064858_si_001.pdf

Supplemental Material - nn5064858_si_002.avi


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