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Published February 2014 | public
Journal Article

Seeing in 4D with electrons: Development of ultrafast electron microscopy at Caltech


The vision to develop 4D electron microscopy, a union of the capabilities of electron microscopy with ultrafast techniques to capture clearly defined images of the nanoscale structure of a material at each step in the course of its chemical or physical transformations, has been pursued at Caltech for the last decade. In this contribution, we will give a brief overview of the capabilities of three currently active Caltech 4D microscopy laboratories. Ongoing work is illustrated by a description of the most recent application of photon-induced near-field electron microscopy (PINEM), a field made possible only by the development of the 4D ultrafast electron microscopy (UEM). An appendix gives the various applications made so far and the historic roots of the development at Caltech.

Additional Information

© 2013 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. Available online 8 December 2013. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation (DMR-0964886) and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (FA9550-11-1-0055) in the Gordon and Betty Moore Center for Physical Biology at the California Institute of Technology. We wish to thank all who made this research possible; their efforts are highlighted by the publications given here. One of us (AHZ) is especially grateful to Sir John M. Thomas for his genuine interest in the development of this field since its inception, and his brilliantly-written commentary [24–29] during the evolution of UED, UEC, and UEM.

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