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Published November 2006 | Published
Journal Article Open

Two-dimensional Bragg grating lasers defined by electron-beam lithography


Two-dimensional Bragg grating (2DBG) lasers with two quarter-wave slip line defects have been designed and fabricated by electron-beam lithography and reactive ion etching. Unlike conventional two-dimensional photonic crystal defect lasers, which use a large refractive index perturbation to confine light in a plane, the 2DBG structures described here selectively control the longitudinal and transverse wave vector components using a weak index perturbation. Two line defects perpendicular to each other are introduced in the 2DBG to define the optical resonance condition in the longitudinal and transverse directions. In this article, we describe the lithography process used to pattern these devices. The 2DBG lasers were defined using polymethylmethacrylate resist exposed in a Leica Microsystems EBPG 5000+ electron-beam writer at 100 kV. A proximity correction code was used to obtain a uniform pattern distribution over a large area, and a dosage matrix was used to optimize the laser design parameters. Measurements of electrically pumped 2DBG lasers showed modal selection in both the longitudinal and transverse directions due to proper design of the grating and defects, making them promising candidates for single-mode, high power, high efficiency, large-area lasers.

Additional Information

© 2006 American Vacuum Society (Received 31 May 2006; accepted 2 October 2006; published 30 November 2006) The authors would like to acknowledge funding by DARPA under Contract No. HR0011-04-1-0032. Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures -- November 2006 Volume 24, Issue 6. PAPERS FROM THE 50th INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ELECTRON, ION, AND PHOTON BEAM TECHNOLOGY AD NANOFABRICATION

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