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Published September 15, 2011 | Published
Journal Article Open

Nonionizing photoacoustic cystography in vivo


We demonstrate the feasibility of a novel and nonionizing process for bladder imaging in vivo, called photoacoustic cystography (PAC). Using a photoacoustic imaging system, we have successfully imaged a rat bladder filled with clinically used Methylene Blue (MB) dye. An image contrast of ~8 was achieved. Further, spectroscopic PAC confirmed the accumulation of MB in the bladder. Using a laser pulse energy of less than 1 mJ/cm^2 (1/20 of the ANSI safety limit), a deeply (1.2 cm) positioned bladder in biological tissues was clearly visible in the PA image. Our results suggest that PAC can potentially provide a nonionizing, relatively cheap, and portable tool for bladder mapping. Among our clinical interests, nonionizing PAC with an injection of MB can potentially monitor vesicoureteral reflux in children.

Additional Information

© 2011 Optical Society of America. Received June 24, 2011; revised August 7, 2011; accepted August 16, 2011; posted August 17, 2011 (Doc. ID 149910); published September 12, 2011. We thank Drs. Saul Greenfield and Wayne Waz for fruitful scientific discussions. This work was supported by the University at Buffalo Research Foundation faculty start-up fund.

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