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Published May 4, 2023 | Submitted
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Theoretical and Experimental Constraints for the Equation of State of Dense and Hot Matter


This review aims at providing an extensive discussion of modern constraints relevant for dense and hot strongly interacting matter. It includes theoretical first-principle results from lattice and perturbative QCD, as well as chiral effective field theory results. From the experimental side, it includes heavy-ion collision and low-energy nuclear physics results, as well as observations from neutron stars and their mergers. The validity of different constraints, concerning specific conditions and ranges of applicability, is also provided.

Additional Information

The authors would like to thank Niseem Abdelrahman, Wei Li, Tetyana Galatyuk, and You Zhou for providing comments and assistance in finding the experimental references in this work. The MUSES collaboration is supported by NSF under OAC-2103680. Additional support for the collaboration members includes: DM is supported NSF Graduate Research Fellowship Program under Grant No. DGE-1746047. JSSM is supported by Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACYT) under SNI Fellowship I1200/16/2020. CR is supported by NSF under grants no. PHY-1654219, PHY-2208724, PHY-2116686. MGA is partly supported by DOE, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics under Award No. DE-FG02-05ER41375. VD is supported by NSF under grants PHY1748621 and NP3M PHY-2116686. MS is supported by DOE, Office of Science No DE-SC0013470. MCM is supported in part by NASA ADAP grant 80NSSC21K0649. ML thanks the São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP) for support under grants 2021/08465-9, 2018/24720-6, and 2017/05685-2, as well as the support of the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq). ERM acknowledges support as the John Archibald Wheeler Fellow at Princeton University (PCTS), and from the Institute for Advanced Study. SPH is supported by DOE grant DE-FG02-00ER41132. PL is supported by the Natural Sciences & Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC). CP is supported by FCT (Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, I.P, Portugal) under Projects No. IDP/-04564/-2020, No. UIDB/-04564/-2020 and 2022.06460.PTDC. SLS is supported by NSF Grant PHY-2006066 and NASA Grant 80NSSC17K0070, both to UIUC.

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August 20, 2023
October 20, 2023