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Published July 30, 2012 | Published + Submitted + Erratum
Journal Article Open

Ultrasensitive and Wide-Bandwidth Thermal Measurements of Graphene at Low Temperatures


Graphene is a material with remarkable electronic properties[1] and exceptional thermal transport properties near room temperature, which have been well examined and understood[2, 3]. However at very low temperatures the thermodynamic and thermal transport properties are much less well explored[4, 5] and somewhat surprisingly, is expected to exhibit extreme thermal isolation. Here we demonstrate an ultra-sensitive, wide-bandwidth measurement scheme to probe the thermal transport and thermodynamic properties of the electron gas of graphene. We employ Johnson noise thermometry at microwave frequency to sensitively measure the temperature of the electron gas with resolution of 4mK/√Hz and a bandwidth of 80 MHz. We have measured the electron-phonon coupling from 2-30 K at a charge density of 2 •10^(11)cm^(-2). Utilizing bolometric mixing, we have sensed temperature oscillations with period of 430 ps and have determined the heat capacity of the electron gas to be 2 • 10^(-21)J/(K •µm^2) at 5 K which is consistent with that of a two dimensional, Dirac electron gas. These measurements suggest that graphene-based devices together with wide bandwidth noise thermometry can generate substantial advances in the areas of ultra-sensitive bolometry[6], calorimetry[7], microwave and terahertz photo-detection[8], and bolometric mixing for applications in areas such as observational astronomy[9] and quantum information and measurement[10].

Additional Information

© 2012 Published by the American Physical Society. Received 9 April 2012; published 30 July 2012; corrected 3 August 2012. We acknowledge help with microfabricated LC resonators from M. Shaw, and helpful conversations with P. Kim, J. Hone, E. Hendrickson, J. P. Eisentien, A. Clerk, P. Hung, E. Wollman, A. Weinstein, B.-I. Wu, D. Nandi, J. Zmuidzinas, J. Stern, W. H. Holmes, and P. Echternach. This work has been supported by the the FCRP Center on Functional Engineering Nano Architectonics (FENA) and US NSF (DMR-0804567). We are grateful to G. Rossman for the use of a Raman spectroscopy setup. Device fabrication was performed at the Kavli Nanoscience Institute (Caltech) and at the Micro Device Laboratory (NASA/JPL). The authors declare that they have no competing financial interests.

Attached Files

Published - PhysRevX.2.031006.pdf

Submitted - 1202.5737v1.pdf

Erratum - PhysRevX.2.039903.pdf


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