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Published December 15, 2013 | Published
Journal Article Open

Absolute photoacoustic thermometry in deep tissue


Photoacoustic thermography is a promising tool for temperature measurement in deep tissue. Here we propose an absolute temperature measurement method based on the dual temperature dependences of the Grüneisen parameter and the speed of sound in tissue. By taking ratiometric measurements at two adjacent temperatures, we can eliminate the factors that are temperature irrelevant but difficult to correct for in deep tissue. To validate our method, absolute temperatures of blood-filled tubes embedded ∼9  mm deep in chicken tissue were measured in a biologically relevant range from 28°C to 46°C. The temperature measurement accuracy was ∼0.6°C. The results suggest that our method can be potentially used for absolute temperature monitoring in deep tissue during thermotherapy.

Additional Information

© 2013 Optical Society of America. Received August 27, 2013; accepted October 19, 2013; posted October 28, 2013 (Doc. ID 196384); published December 3, 2013. The authors appreciate Prof. James Ballard's close reading of the manuscript. We thank Lidai Wang and Arie Krumholz for helpful discussions. This work was sponsored by NIH grants DP1 EB016986 (NIH Director's Pioneer Award), R01 EB008085, R01 CA134539, U54 CA136398, R01 CA157277, and R01 CA159959. L. V. Wang has a financial interest in Endra, Inc., and Microphotoacoustics, Inc., which, however, did not support this work.

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