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Published March 9, 2015 | Submitted + Published
Journal Article Open

A Joint Analysis of BICEP2/Keck Array and Planck Data

Ade, P. A. R. ORCID icon
Aghanim, N. ORCID icon
Ahmed, Z.
Aikin, R. W.
Alexander, K. D. ORCID icon
Arnaud, M.
Aumont, J.
Baccigalupi, C.
Banday, A. J.
Barkats, D.
Barreiro, R. B. ORCID icon
Bartlett, J. G.
Bartolo, N.
Battaner, E.
Benabed, K.
Benoit-Lévy, A.
Benton, S. J.
Bernard, J. -P.
Bersanelli, M.
Bielewicz, P.
Bischoff, C. A.
Bock, J. J. ORCID icon
Bonaldi, A.
Bonavera, L.
Bond, J. R. ORCID icon
Borrill, J.
Bouchet, F. R.
Boulanger, F.
Brevik, J. A.
Bucher, M.
Buder, I.
Bullock, E.
Burigana, C.
Butler, R. C.
Buza, V.
Calabrese, E.
Cardoso, J. -F.
Catalano, A.
Challinor, A.
Chary, R.-R. ORCID icon
Chiang, H. C.
Christensen, P. R.
Colombo, L. P. L.
Combet, C.
Connors, J.
Couchot, F.
Coulais, A.
Crill, B. P. ORCID icon
Curto, A.
Cuttaia, F.
Danese, L.
Davies, R. D.
Davis, R. J.
de Bernardis, Paolo ORCID icon
Rosa, A. de
Zotti, G. de
Delabrouille, J.
Delouis, J. -M.
Désert, F. -X.
Dickinson, C. ORCID icon
Diego, J. M. ORCID icon
Dole, H.
Donzelli, S.
Doré, O. ORCID icon
Douspis, M.
Dowell, C. D.
Duband, L.
Ducout, A.
Dunkley, J.
Dupac, X.
Dvorkin, C.
Efstathiou, G.
Elsner, F.
Enßlin, T. A.
Eriksen, H. K.
Filippini, J. P. ORCID icon
Finelli, F.
Fliescher, S.
Forni, O. ORCID icon
Frailis, M.
Fraisse, A. A.
Franceschi, E.
Frejsel, A.
Galeotta, S.
Galli, S.
Ganga, K.
Ghosh, T.
Giard, M.
Gjerløw, E.
Golwala, S. R. ORCID icon
González-Nuevo, J.
Górski, K. M.
Gratton, S.
Gregorio, A.
Gruppuso, A.
Gudmundsson, J. E.
Halpern, M. ORCID icon
Hansen, F. K.
Hanson, D.
Harrison, D. L.
Hasselfield, M.
Helou, G. ORCID icon
Henrot-Versillé, S.
Herranz, D.
Hildebrandt, S. R.
Hilton, G. C.
Hivon, E.
Hobson, M.
Holmes, W. A.
Hovest, W.
Hristov, V. V.
Huffenberger, K. M.
Hui, H.
Hurier, G.
Irwin, K. D.
Jaffe, A. H.
Jaffe, T. R.
Jewell, J.
Jones, W. C.
Juvela, M.
Karkare, K. S. ORCID icon
Kaufman, J. P.
Keating, B. G.
Kefeli, S.
Keihanen, E.
Kernasovskiy, S. A.
Keskitalo, R.
Kisner, T. S.
Kneissl, R.
Knoche, J.
Knox, L.
Kovac, J. M.
Krachmalnicoff, N.
Kunz, M.
Kuo, C. L.
Kurki-Suonio, H.
Lagache, G.
Lähteenmäki, A.
Lamarre, J.-M.
Lasenby, A.
Lattanzi, M.
Lawrence, C. R.
Leitch, E. M.
Leonardi, R.
Levrier, F.
Lewis, A.
Liguori, M.
Lilje, P. B.
Linden-Vørnle, M.
López-Caniego, M.
Lubin, P. M.
Lueker, M.
Macías-Pérez, J. F.
Maffei, B.
Maino, D.
Mandolesi, N.
Mangilli, A.
Maris, M.
Martin, P. G. ORCID icon
Martínez-González, E.
Masi, S. ORCID icon
Mason, P.
Matarrese, S.
Megerian, K. G.
Meinhold, P. R.
Melchiorri, A.
Mendes, L.
Mennella, A.
Migliaccio, M.
Mitra, S.
Miville-Deschênes, M.-A. ORCID icon
Moneti, A.
Montier, L.
Morgante, G.
Mortlock, D.
Moss, A.
Munshi, D.
Murphy, J. A.
Naselsky, P.
Nati, F.
Natoli, P.
Netterfield, C. B.
Nguyen, H. T.
Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.
Noviello, F.
Novikov, D.
Novikov, I.
O'Brient, R.
Ogburn, R. W., IV
Orlando, A.
Pagano, L.
Pajot, F.
Paladini, R. ORCID icon
Paoletti, D.
Partridge, B.
Pasian, F.
Patanchon, G.
Pearson, T. J. ORCID icon
Perdereau, O.
Perotto, L.
Pettorino, V.
Piacentini, F. ORCID icon
Piat, M.
Pietrobon, D.
Plaszczynski, S.
Pointecouteau, E.
Polenta, G.
Ponthieu, N.
Pratt, G. W.
Prunet, S.
Pryke, C.
Puget, J.-L.
Rachen, J. P.
Reach, W. T. ORCID icon
Rebolo, R. ORCID icon
Reinecke, M.
Remazeilles, M.
Renault, C.
Renzi, A.
Richter, S.
Ristorcelli, I.
Rocha, G. ORCID icon
Rossetti, M.
Roudier, G.
Rowan-Robinson, M.
Rubiño-Martin, J. A.
Rusholme, B. ORCID icon
Sandri, M.
Santos, D.
Savelainen, M.
Savini, G.
Schwarz, R.
Scott, D. ORCID icon
Seiffert, M. D.
Sheehy, C. D.
Spencer, L. D.
Staniszewski, Z. K.
Stolyarov, V.
Sudiwala, R.
Sunyaev, R. A.
Sutton, D.
Suur-Uski, A.-S.
Sygnet, J.-F.
Tauber, J. A.
Teply, G. P.
Terenzi, L.
Thompson, K. L.
Toffolatti, L.
Tolan, J. E.
Tomasi, M.
Tristram, M.
Tucci, M.
Turner, A. D.
Valenziano, L.
Valiviita, J.
Van Tent, B.
Vibert, L.
Vielva, P.
Vieregg, A. G.
Villa, F.
Wade, L. A.
Wandelt, B. D. ORCID icon
Watson, R.
Weber, A. C.
Wehus, I. K.
White, M.
White, S. D. M.
Willmert, J.
Wong, C. L.
Yoon, K. W.
Yvon, D.
Zacchei, A.
Zonca, A.
Planck Collaboration
BICEP2 Collaboration


We report the results of a joint analysis of data from BICEP2/Keck Array and Planck. BICEP2 and Keck Array have observed the same approximately 400  deg2 patch of sky centered on RA 0 h, Dec. −57.5°. The combined maps reach a depth of 57 nK deg in Stokes Q and U in a band centered at 150 GHz. Planck has observed the full sky in polarization at seven frequencies from 30 to 353 GHz, but much less deeply in any given region (1.2  μK deg in Q and U at 143 GHz). We detect 150×353 cross-correlation in B modes at high significance. We fit the single- and cross-frequency power spectra at frequencies ≥150  GHz to a lensed-ΛCDM model that includes dust and a possible contribution from inflationary gravitational waves (as parametrized by the tensor-to-scalar ratio r), using a prior on the frequency spectral behavior of polarized dust emission from previous Planck analysis of other regions of the sky. We find strong evidence for dust and no statistically significant evidence for tensor modes. We probe various model variations and extensions, including adding a synchrotron component in combination with lower frequency data, and find that these make little difference to the r constraint. Finally, we present an alternative analysis which is similar to a map-based cleaning of the dust contribution, and show that this gives similar constraints. The final result is expressed as a likelihood curve for r, and yields an upper limit r0.05<0.12 at 95% confidence. Marginalizing over dust and r, lensing B modes are detected at 7.0σ significance.

Additional Information

© 2015 American Physical Society. (Received 21 January 2015; published 9 March 2015) BICEP2 was supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation under Grants No. ANT-0742818 and No. ANT-1044978 (Caltech and Harvard) and No. ANT-0742592 and No. ANT-1110087 (Chicago and Minnesota). The development of antenna-coupled detector technology was supported by the JPL Research and Technology Development Fund and Grants No. 06-ARPA206-0040 and No. 10-SAT10-0017 from the NASA APRA and SAT programs. The Keck Array project was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grants No. ANT-1145172 (Harvard), No. ANT-1145143 (Minnesota) and No. ANT-1145248 (Stanford), and from the Keck Foundation (Caltech). We thank the staff of the U.S. Antarctic Program and in particular the South Pole Station without whose help this research would not have been possible. The Planck Collaboration acknowledges the support of the following: ESA; CNES, and CNRS/INSU-IN2P3-INP (France); ASI, CNR, and INAF (Italy); NASA and DoE (USA); STFC and UKSA (UK); CSIC, MINECO, JA and RES (Spain); Tekes, AoF, and CSC (Finland); DLR and MPG (Germany); CSA (Canada); DTU Space (Denmark); SER/SSO (Switzerland); RCN (Norway); SFI (Ireland); FCT/MCTES (Portugal); ERC and PRACE (EU). A description of the Planck Collaboration and a list of its members, indicating which technical or scientific activities they have been involved in, can be found in Ref. [52].

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Published - PhysRevLett.114.101301.pdf

Submitted - 1502.00612v1.pdf


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