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Published February 20, 2023 | Published
Journal Article Open

The Evolution and Mass Dependence of Galaxy Cluster Pressure Profiles at 0.05 ≤ z ≤ 0.60 and 4 × 10¹⁴ M_⊙ ≤ M₅₀₀ ≤ 30 × 10¹⁴ M_⊙


We have combined X-ray observations from Chandra with Sunyaev–Zel'dovich effect data from Planck and Bolocam to measure intracluster medium pressure profiles from 0.03 R₅₀₀ ≤ R ≤ 5 R₅₀₀ for a sample of 21 low-z galaxy clusters with a median redshift of〈z〉= 0.08 and a median mass of =〈M₅₀₀〉= 6.1 × 10¹⁴ M_⊙ and a sample of 19 mid-z galaxy clusters with〈z〉= 0.50 and〈M₅₀₀〉= 10.6 × 10¹⁴ M_⊙. The mean scaled pressure in the low-z sample is lower at small radii and higher at large radii, a trend that is accurately reproduced in similarly selected samples from The Three Hundred simulations. This difference appears to be primarily due to dynamical state at small radii, evolution at intermediate radii, and a combination of evolution and mass dependence at large radii. Furthermore, the overall flattening of the mean scaled pressure profile in the low-z sample compared to the mid-z sample is consistent with expectations due to differences in the mass accretion rate and the fractional impact of feedback mechanisms. In agreement with previous studies, the fractional scatter about the mean scaled pressure profile reaches a minimum of ≃20% near 0.5 R₅₀₀. This scatter is consistent between the low-z and mid-z samples at all radii, suggesting it is not strongly impacted by sample selection, and this general behavior is reproduced in The Three Hundred simulations. Finally, analytic functions that approximately describe the mass and redshift trends in mean pressure profile shape are provided.

Additional Information

© 2023. The Author(s). Published by the American Astronomical Society. Original content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 licence. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI. J.S. and A.M. were supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under grant No. 80NSSC18K0920 issued through the ROSES 2017 Astrophysics Data Analysis Program. J.W. was supported by a Robert L. Blinkenberg Caltech Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship and the Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology. S.A. and G.M. were supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under contract No. DE-AC02-76SF00515. Facilities: CXO - Chandra X-ray Observatory satellite, Planck - , Caltech Submillimeter Observatory - , ROSAT. - Software: MPFIT (Markwardt 2009), LRGS (Mantz 2016), SZPACK (Chluba et al. 2012, 2013).

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August 22, 2023
August 22, 2023