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Published April 2007 | public
Journal Article

In vivo imaging of subcutaneous structures using functional photoacoustic microscopy


Functional photoacoustic microscopy (fPAM) is a hybrid technology that permits noninvasive imaging of the optical absorption contrast in subcutaneous biological tissues. fPAM uses a focused ultrasonic transducer to detect high-frequency photoacoustic (PA) signals. Volumetric images of biological tissues can be formed by two-dimensional raster scanning, and functional parameters can be further extracted from spectral measurements. fPAM is safe and applicable to animals as well as humans. This protocol provides guidelines for parameter selection, system alignment, imaging operation, laser safety and data processing for in vivo fPAM. It currently takes ~100 min to carry out this protocol, including ~50 min for data acquisition using a 10-Hz pulse-repetition-rate laser system. The data acquisition time, however, can be significantly reduced by using a laser system with a higher pulse repetition rate.

Additional Information

© 2007 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Published online 5 April 2007. We thank G. Stoica, O. Craciun, J. Oh, G. Ku, M.-L. Li, X. Xie, G. Lungu, R. Zemp and M. Sivaramakrishnan for experimental assistance. This work was sponsored by grants from the National Institutes of Health (R01 EB000712 and R01 NS46214 to L.V.W.). The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Additional details

August 19, 2023
October 19, 2023