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Published November 2012 | Published
Journal Article Open

In vivophotoacoustic microscopy with 7.6-µm axial resolution using a commercial 125-MHz ultrasonic transducer


Photoacoustic microscopy has achieved submicron lateral resolution, but its axial resolution is much lower. Here an axial resolution of 7.6 μm, the highest axial resolution validated by experimental data, has been achieved by using a commercial 125 MHz ultrasonic transducer for signal detection followed by the Wiener deconvolution for signal processing. Limited by the working distance, the high-frequency ultrasonic transducer can penetrate 1.2 mm into biological tissue from the ultrasound detection side. At this depth, the signal-to-noise ratio decreases by 11 dB, and the axial resolution degrades by 36%. The new system was demonstrated in imaging melanoma cells ex vivo and mouse ears in vivo.

Additional Information

© 2012 SPIE. Paper 12446 received Jul. 13, 2012; revised manuscript received Oct. 5, 2012; accepted for publication Oct. 15, 2012; published online Nov. 2, 2012. We thank Prof. James Ballard for the close reading of the manuscript and Dr. Amy Winkler for helpful discussions. This work was sponsored in part by National Institutes of Health (NIH) grants R01 EB000712, R01 EB008085, R01 CA134539, U54 CA136398, R01 CA157277, and R01 CA159959. L.W. has a financial interest in Microphotoacoustics, Inc. and Endra, Inc., which, however, did not support this work. K.M. has a financial interest in Microphotoacoustics, Inc.

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