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Published April 17, 2000 | Published
Book Section - Chapter Open

Three-dimensional microfabrication using two-photon-activated chemistry


Photochemical reactions which can be activated by the simultaneous absorption of two photons provide a means for single-step fabrication of complex 3D microstructures. These types of structures are needed for a wide range of applications, including microfluidics, electrooptics, and micro-electromechanical systems. We have shown that chromophores can be engineered to have both large two-photon absorptivities as well as an efficient means for activating chemical processes, such as radical polymerization, subsequent to the photoexcitation. Chromophores designed following this strategy two-photon-activate the radical polymerization of acrylates at lower incident laser powers than conventional UV initiators. Efficient two-photon photopolymer resins based on these chromophores were used in the fabrication of complex microarchitectures, such as photonic bandgap structures and tapered waveguides. We have devised a strategy which allows this approach to be extended to other chemical systems.

Additional Information

© 2000 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Support of this research by the NSF (Chemistry Division), the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (California Institute of Technology), and the Office ofNaval Research (through CAMP) is gratefully acknowledged. Part ofthis work was performed while SRM and JWP were at JPL. We thank Sartomer, Inc. for providing us with various acrylate monomers used in this study.

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