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Published July 2006 | Supplemental Material
Journal Article Open

Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging


Although optical absorption is strongly associated with the physiological status of biological tissue, existing high-resolution optical imaging modalities, including confocal microscopy, two-photon microscopy and optical coherence tomography, do not sense optical absorption directly. Furthermore, optical scattering prevents these methods from imaging deeper than ~1 mm below the tissue surface. Here we report functional photoacoustic microscopy (fPAM), which provides multiwavelength imaging of optical absorption and permits high spatial resolution beyond this depth limit with a ratio of maximum imaging depth to depth resolution greater than 100. Reflection mode, rather than orthogonal or transmission mode, is adopted because it is applicable to more anatomical sites than the others. fPAM is demonstrated with in vivo imaging of angiogenesis, melanoma, hemoglobin oxygen saturation (sO_2) of single vessels in animals and total hemoglobin concentration in humans.

Additional Information

© 2006 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Received 31 January; accepted 3 May; published online 25 June 2006. We thank O. Craciun, J. Oh, G. Ku, M.L. Li and G. Lungu for experimental assistance. This work was sponsored by National Institutes of Health grants R01 EB000712 and R01 NS46214. The authors declare that they have no competing financial interests.

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October 19, 2023