Nanomusical Systems Visualized and Controlled in 4D Electron Microscopy
Nanomusical systems, nanoharp and nanopiano, fabricated as arrays of cantilevers by focused ion beam milling of a layered Ni/Ti/Si_3N_4 thin film, have been investigated in 4D electron microscopy. With the imaging and selective femtosecond and nanosecond control combinations, full characterization of the amplitude and phase of the resonant response of a particular cantilever relative to the optical pulse train was possible. Using a high repetition rate, low energy optical pulse train for selective, resonant excitation, coupled with pulsed and steady-state electron imaging for visualization in space and time, both the amplitude on the nanoscale and resonance of motion on the megahertz scale were resolved for these systems. Tilting of the specimen allowed in-plane and out-of-plane cantilever bending and cantilever torsional motions to be identified in stroboscopic measurements of impulsively induced free vibration. Finally, the transient, as opposed to steady state, thermostat effect was observed for the layered nanocantilevers, with a sufficiently sensitive response to demonstrate suitability for in situ use in thin-film temperature measurements requiring resolutions of <10 K and 10 μm on time scales here mechanically limited to microseconds and potentially at shorter times.
Additional Information© 2011 American Chemical Society. Received March 21, 2011. Revised April 13, 2011. Published April 22, 2011. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation and Air Force Office of Scientific Research in the Gordon and Betty Moore Center for Physical Biology at Caltech.
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