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Published January 13, 2020 | Supplemental Material + Published
Journal Article Open

Programming temporal morphing of self-actuated shells


Advances in shape-morphing materials, such as hydrogels, shape-memory polymers and light-responsive polymers have enabled prescribing self-directed deformations of initially flat geometries. However, most proposed solutions evolve towards a target geometry without considering time-dependent actuation paths. To achieve more complex geometries and avoid self-collisions, it is critical to encode a spatial and temporal shape evolution within the initially flat shell. Recent realizations of time-dependent morphing are limited to the actuation of few, discrete hinges and cannot form doubly curved surfaces. Here, we demonstrate a method for encoding temporal shape evolution in architected shells that assume complex shapes and doubly curved geometries. The shells are non-periodic tessellations of pre-stressed contractile unit cells that soften in water at rates prescribed locally by mesostructure geometry. The ensuing midplane contraction is coupled to the formation of encoded curvatures. We propose an inverse design tool based on a data-driven model for unit cells' temporal responses.

Additional Information

© 2020 The Author(s). Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. Received 31 October 2019; Accepted 11 December 2019; Published 13 January 2020. R.G. and B.B. were supported by the European Research Council (ERC) under grant agreement No 715767 - MATERIALIZABLE: Intelligent fabrication-oriented Computational Design and Modeling. J.P. was supported by the European Union's Horizon 2020 Marie Sklodowscka-Curie COFUND Action ISTPlus under Grant Agreement No. 754411. C.M. and C.D. were supported by the US Army Research Office Grant W911NF-17-1-0147. C.M. was supported by a NASA Space Technology Research Fellowship. Data availability: All raw data is publicly available through IST Austria Research Explorer https://doi.org/10.15479/AT:ISTA:7154. Code availability: Source code and processed data are publicly available on https://github.com/russelmann/temporal-morphing-ncomms. Author Contributions: R.G., C.D. and B.B. designed the research. R.G. and C.M. conducted experiments and performed data modeling and fitting for bracket specimens. J.P. implemented physical simulator. R.G., C.M. and J.P. contributed to mechanical modeling. R.G. designed target shape geometries. R.G. and J.P. developed the inverse design tool and performed simulations. R.G. fabricated, tested, and scanned shells. C.D and B.B. supervised the research. All authors analyzed data, wrote the manuscript, and developed the figures. The authors declare no competing interests.

Attached Files

Published - s41467-019-14015-2.pdf

Supplemental Material - 41467_2019_14015_MOESM1_ESM.pdf

Supplemental Material - 41467_2019_14015_MOESM2_ESM.pdf

Supplemental Material - 41467_2019_14015_MOESM3_ESM.pdf

Supplemental Material - 41467_2019_14015_MOESM4_ESM.mp4

Supplemental Material - 41467_2019_14015_MOESM5_ESM.mp4

Supplemental Material - 41467_2019_14015_MOESM6_ESM.mp4

Supplemental Material - 41467_2019_14015_MOESM7_ESM.mp4

Supplemental Material - 41467_2019_14015_MOESM8_ESM.mp4


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