Auxiliary Material Submission for Paper

       Magnetofossil spike during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum
               Robert E. Kopp (California Institute of Technology),
	              Timothy D. Raub (Yale University),
                        Dirk Schumann (McGill University),
                       Hojatollah Vali (McGill University),
                       Alexei V. Smirnov (Yale University),
       and Joseph L. Kirschvink (California Institute of Technology)

                               Paleoceanography, in review


This auxiliary material contains the results of FMR, rock magnetic, electron
diffraction, and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analyses of the Ancora
core and also discusses the methods and implications of a paleogeographic
re-interpretation of initial Eocene New Jersey. FMR parameters for samples from
the core are presented in Table S1 ("2007pa001473-tableS1-sampledata.txt").
Remanent magnetization experiments are discussed in
"2007pa001473-tex1-RemnanentAndFORC.tex" and results presented in Table S1,
Figure S1 ("2007pa001473-figS1-AncoraRmgProfiles.eps"), Figure S2
("2007pa001473-figS2-AncoraCoercivity.eps"), and Figure S3
("2007pa001473-figS3-AncoraARM.eps"). FORC analyses are described in
"2007pa001473-tex1-RemnanentAndFORC.tex", and a FORC distribution for one PETM
clay sample is plotted in Figure S4 ("2007pa001473-figS4-Anc556-FORC.eps"). An
electron diffraction pattern and an EDS spectrum for one PETM clay sample is
presented in Figure S5 ("2007pa001473-figS5-Anc559-HRTEMandEDS.eps").

The paleogeographic analysis is discussed in
"2007pa001473-tex2-Paleogeography.tex". Parameters used in the analysis are
presented in Table S2 ("2007pa001473-tableS2-poleparameters.txt").
Paleolatitudes are presented in Table S3

1. 2007pa001473-tex1-RemnanentAndFORC.tex describes the methods and results of
remanent magnetization (alternating field, isothermal remanent magnetization,
and anhysteretic remanent magnetization) and First Order Reversal Curve (FORC)
analyses. The file is marked up in TeX.

2. 2007pa001473-tex2-Paleogeography.tex discusses our paleogeographic
reconstruction of initial Eocene New Jersey, using the Faroe Islands flood
basalt pole of Riisager et al. [2002]. The file is marked up in TeX.

3. 2007pa001473-tableS1-sampledata.txt Table S1. FMR and rock magnetic
parameters for upper Paleocene to lower Eocene strata, ODP Leg 174AX, Ancora,
New Jersey. FMR parameters are also presented in Figure 2, and rock magnetic
parameters are also presented in Figure S1.
3.1  Column "ft", feet, depth of sample.
3.2  Column "depth", meters, depth of sample.
3.3  Column "desc", description on sample, based on age, lithology, and FMR
3.4  Column "abs", arbitary units, total FMR absorption
3.5  Column "geff", effective g factor of absorption peak
3.6  Column "A", FMR asymmetry ratio A
3.7  Column "dBFWHM", mT, FMR full-width at half-maximum (in mT)
3.8  Column "alpha", empirical FMR discriminant factor alpha
3.9  Column "sIRM", Am^2/kg, IRM determined after 350 mT pulse, "null" for
samples not measured
3.10 Column "Bcr", mT, coercivity of remanence, determined from the
intersection of the IRM acquisition and demagnetization curves, "null" for
samples not measured
3.11 Column "chi_ARMtoIRM", m/A, ratio of ARM susceptibility (assessed in 100
mT AF field and 0.1 mT DC biasing field) to IRM acquired in 100 mT field,
"null" for samples not measured

4. 2007pa001473-tableS2-poleparameters.txt Table S2. Parameters for applying
Paleocene-Eocene Faroe Islands paleomagnetic pole to North America.
4.1 Column "using", description of site or pole
4.2 Column "latitude", degrees, latitude
4.3 Column "longitude", degrees, longitude
4.4 Column "A95", degrees, A95 error angle
4.5 Column "rotation_angle", degrees, rotation angle
4.6 Column "reference", source reference

5. 2007pa001473-tableS3-paleolatitudes.txt Table S3. Ancora, New Jersey,
paleolatitudes and facing directions for Faroe Islands volcanics and synthetic
APWP poles
5.1 Column "reference_pole", reference pole
5.2 Column "pole_lat", degrees, pole latitude
5.3 Column "pole_long", degrees, pole longitude
5.4 Column "A95", degees, A95 error angle, "null" where not determined
5.5 Column "paleolat_mean", degrees, mean estimated paleolatitude
5.6 Column "paleolat_confint_lowerrange", degrees, lower range of confidence
interval on estimated paleolatitude, "null" where A95 is not determined
5.7 Column "paleolat_confint_upperrange", degrees, upper range of confidence
interval on estimated paleolatitude, "null" where A95 is not determined
5.8 Column "facing", degrees, facing angle
5.9 Column "reference", source reference

6. 2007pa001473-figS1-AncoraRmgProfiles.eps Figure S1. Fine quartz sand
fraction, $\delta^{13}C_{inorganic}$, total FMR absorption, rock magnetic
parameters, and IRM acquisition coercivity spectra for upper Paleocene to lower
Eocene strata, ODP Leg 174AX, Ancora, New Jersey. Maximum IRM was imparted in a
350 mT field. Coercivity of remanence Bcr was determined from the intersection
of IRM acquisition and demagnetization curves [Cisowski, 1981]. $\chi_{ARM}/IRM$
is the ratio of ARM susceptibility determined in a 100 mT alternating field and
a 0.1 mT DC biasing field to IRM acquired in 100 mT field. Left edges of
coercivity spectra align with drillcore depth.

7. 2007pa001473-figS2-AncoraCoercivity.eps Figure S2. Coercivity spectra from
Ancora samples in late Paleocene silt, PETM clay, and early Eocene silt,
determined from the derivative of IRM acquisition curves. Coercivity spectra for
late Paleocene and early Eocene silt samples are exaggerated by a factor of 10.

8. 2007pa001473-figS3-AncoraARM.eps Figure S3. ARM acquisition curves for Ancora
samples in late Paleocene silt, PETM clay, and early Eocene silt, determined in
a 100 mT alternating field. The upper dotted line shows the reference curve of
the magnetotactic bacterium Magnetospirillium magneticum AMB-1, while the lower
dotted line shows the reference curve for highly interacting single domain
magnetite in a chiton tooth.

9. 2007pa001473-figS4-Anc556-FORC.eps Figure S4. First-order reversal curve
(FORC) distribution for an Ancora sample at 169.53 m. The distribution suggests
the presence of stable single-domain magnetic particles (magnetofossils) with a
unimodal grain-size distribution and weak between-chain or between-particle
magnetic interactions. The color legend shows the distribution density. The
smoothing factor SF = 2. The plot on the right shows a normalized vertical
profile through the distribution maximum at 21.7 mT (dashed line).  The mean
half-width field $H_{u1/2} = 4.7$ mT.

10. 2007pa001473-figS5-Anc559-HRTEMandEDS.tif Figure S5. (a) Diffraction pattern
and (b) energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis of the particle shown in
Figure 4d. (a) shows the spacing of 0.485 nm and 0.420 nm corresponding to the
{111} and {200} planes of the magnetite, respectively. (b) demonstrates that the
crystals are dominantly composed of iron and oxygen. Copper peaks result from
the Cu TEM grid on which the sample was mounted. Traces of aluminium and silicon
are likely from clay particles adsorbed onto the magnetite crystals.


Besse, J., and V. Courtillot (2002), Apparent and true polar wander and the
geometry of the geomagnetic field over the last 200 Myr, J. Geophys. Res., 107,
2300, doi:2310.1029/2000JB000050.

Chen, A. P., R. Egli, and B. M. Moskowitz (in press), First-order Reversal Curve
(FORC) diagrams of natural and cultured biogenic magnetic particles, J. Geophys.
Res., doi:10.1029/2006JB004575.

Cisowski, S. (1981), Interacting vs. non-interacting single-domain behavior in
natural and synthetic samples, Phys. Eart Planet. Int., 26, 56-62.

Diaz-Ricci, J. C., and J. L. Kirschvink (1992), Magnetic domain state and
coercivity predictions for biogenic greigite (Fe3S4): a comparison of theory
with magnetosome observations, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 17309-17315.

Kopp, R. E., B. P. Weiss, A. C. Maloof, H. Vali, C. Z. Nash, and J. L.
Kirschvink (2006), Chains, clumps, and strings: Magnetofossil taphonomy with
ferromagnetic resonance spectroscopy, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 247, 10-25.

Pan, Y., N. Petersen, M. Winklhofer, A. F. Davila, Q. Liu, T. Frederichs, M.
Hanzlik, and R. Zhu (2005), Rock magnetic properties of uncultured magnetotactic
bacteria, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 237, 311-325.

Pike, C. R., A. P. Roberts, and K. L. Verosub (1999), Characterizing
interactions in fine magnetic particle systems using first order reversal
curves, J. Appl. Phys., 85, 6660-6667.

Riisager, P., J. Riisager, N. Abrahamsen, and R. Waagstein (2002), New
paleomagnetic pole and magnetostratigraphy of Faroe Islands flood volcanics,
North Atlantic igneous province, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 201, 261-276.

Srivastava, S. P., and W. R. Roest (1989), Seafloor spreading history II-IV,
Atlantic Geoscience Centre, Geological Survey of Canada.

Storey, M., R. A. Duncan, and C. C. Swisher, III (2007), Paleocene-Eocene
Thermal Maximum and the Opening of the Northeast Atlantic, Science, 316,

Torsvik, T. H., J. Mosar, and E. A. Eide (2001a), Cretaceous-Tertiary
geodynamics: a North Atlantic exercise, Geophys. J. Int., 146, 850-866.

Torsvik, T. H., R. Van der Voo, J. G. Meert, J. Mosar, and H. J. Walderhaug
(2001b), Reconstructions of the continents around the North Atlantic at about
the 60th parallel, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 187, 55-69.

Torsvik, T. H., R. Van der Voo, and T. F. Redfield (2002), Relative hotspot
motions versus True Polar Wander, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 202, 185-200.

Winklhofer, M., and G. T. Zimanyi (2006), Extracting the intrinsic switching
field distribution in perpendicular media: A compartive approach, J. Appl.
Phys., 99, 08E710, doi:710.1063/1061.2176598.