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Published August 2020 | Submitted + Published
Journal Article Open

Testing two-component models on very high-energy gamma-ray-emitting BL Lac objects

Acciari, V. A. ORCID icon
Ansoldi, S.
Antonelli, L. A.
Arbet Engels, A.
Baack, D.
Babić, A.
Banerjee, B.
Barres de Almeida, U.
Barrio, J. A.
Becerra González, J.
Bednarek, W.
Bellizzi, L.
Bernardini, E.
Berti, A.
Besenrieder, J.
Bhattacharyya, W.
Bigongiari, C.
Biland, A.
Blanch, O.
Bonnoli, G.
Bošnjak, Ž.
Busetto, G.
Carosi, R.
Ceribella, G.
Cerruti, M.
Chai, Y.
Chilingarian, A.
Cikota, S.
Colak, S. M.
Colin, U.
Colombo, E.
Contreras, J. L.
Cortina, J.
Covino, S.
D'Amico, G.
D'Elia, V.
Da Vela, P.
Dazzi, F.
De Angelis, A.
De Lotto, B.
Delfino, M.
Delgado, J.
Depaoli, D.
Di Pierro, F.
Di Venere, L.
Do Souto Espiñeira, E.
Dominis Prester, D.
Donini, A.
Dorner, D.
Doro, M.
Elsaesser, D.
Fallah Ramazani, V.
Fattorini, A.
Ferrara, G.
Foffano, L.
Fonseca, M. V.
Font, L.
Fruck, C.
Fukami, S.
García López, R. J.
Garczarczyk, M.
Gasparyan, S.
Gaug, M.
Giglietto, N.
Giordano, F.
Gliwny, P.
Godinović, N.
Green, D.
Hadasch, D.
Hahn, A.
Herrera, J.
Hoang, J.
Hrupec, D.
Hütten, M.
Inada, T.
Inoue, S.
Ishio, K.
Iwamura, Y.
Jouvin, L.
Kajiwara, Y.
Karjalainen, M.
Kerszberg, D.
Kobayashi, Y.
Kubo, H.
Kushida, J.
Lamastra, A.
Lelas, D.
Leone, F.
Lindfors, E.
Lombardi, S.
Longo, F.
López, M.
López-Coto, R.
López-Oramas, A.
Loporchio, S.
Machado de Oliveira Fraga, B.
Maggio, C.
Majumdar, P.
Makariev, M.
Mallamaci, M.
Maneva, G.
Manganaro, M.
Mannheim, K.
Maraschi, L.
Mariotti, M.
Martínez, M.
Mazin, D.
Mender, S.
Mićanović, S.
Miceli, D.
Miener, T.
Minev, M.
Miranda, J. M.
Mirzoyan, R.
Molina, E.
Moralejo, A.
Morcuende, D.
Moreno, V.
Moretti, E.
Munar-Adrover, P.
Neustroev, V.
Nigro, C.
Nilsson, K.
Ninci, D.
Nishijima, K.
Noda, K.
Nogués, L.
Nozaki, S.
Ohtani, Y.
Oka, T.
Otero-Santos, J.
Palatiello, M.
Paneque, D.
Paoletti, R.
Paredes, J. M.
Pavletić, L.
Peñil, P.
Peresano, M.
Persic, M.
Prada Moroni, P. G.
Prandini, E.
Puljak, I.
Rhode, W.
Ribó, M.
Rico, J.
Righi, C.
Rugliancich, A.
Saha, L.
Sahakyan, N.
Saito, T.
Sakurai, S.
Satalecka, K.
Schleicher, B.
Schmidt, K.
Schweizer, T.
Sitarek, J.
Šnidarić, I.
Sobczynska, D.
Spolon, A.
Stamerra, A.
Strom, D.
Strzys, M.
Suda, Y.
Surić, T.
Takahashi, M.
Tavecchio, F.
Temnikov, P.
Terzić, T.
Teshima, M.
Torres-Albà, N.
Tosti, L.
van Scherpenberg, J.
Vanzo, G.
Vazquez Acosta, M.
Ventura, S.
Verguilov, V.
Vigorito, C. F.
Vitale, V.
Vovk, I.
Will, M.
Zarić, D.
Nievas-Rosillo, M.
Arcaro, C.
D' Ammando, F.
de Palma, F.
Hodges, M.
Hovatta, T.
Kiehlmann, S.
Max-Moerbeck, W.
Readhead, A. C. S. ORCID icon
Reeves, R.
Takalo, L.
Reinthal, R.
Jormanainen, J.
Wierda, F.
Wagner, S. M.
Berdyugin, A.
Nabizadeh, A.
Talebpour Sheshvan, N.
Oksanen, A.
Bachev, R.
Strigachev, A.
Kehusmaa, P.
MAGIC Collaboration


Context. It has become evident that one-zone synchrotron self-Compton models are not always adequate for very high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray-emitting blazars. While two-component models perform better, they are difficult to constrain due to the large number of free parameters. Aims. In this work, we make a first attempt at taking into account the observational constraints from very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) data, long-term light curves (radio, optical, and X-rays), and optical polarisation to limit the parameter space for a two-component model and test whether or not it can still reproduce the observed spectral energy distribution (SED) of the blazars. Methods. We selected five TeV BL Lac objects based on the availability of VHE gamma-ray and optical polarisation data. We collected constraints for the jet parameters from VLBI observations. We evaluated the contributions of the two components to the optical flux by means of decomposition of long-term radio and optical light curves as well as modelling of the optical polarisation variability of the objects. We selected eight epochs for these five objects based on the variability observed at VHE gamma rays, for which we constructed the SEDs that we then modelled with a two-component model. Results. We found parameter sets which can reproduce the broadband SED of the sources in the framework of two-component models considering all available observational constraints from VLBI observations. Moreover, the constraints obtained from the long-term behaviour of the sources in the lower energy bands could be used to determine the region where the emission in each band originates. Finally, we attempt to use optical polarisation data to shed new light on the behaviour of the two components in the optical band. Our observationally constrained two-component model allows explanation of the entire SED from radio to VHE with two co-located emission regions.

Additional Information

© 2020 ESO. Article published by EDP Sciences. Received 25 February 2020; Accepted 8 June 2020; Published online 28 August 2020. We would like to thank the anonymous reviewer whose comments have helped us improving this manuscript. VFR and EL were supported by Academy of Finland projects 317636 and 320045. We would like to thank the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias for the excellent working conditions at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos in La Palma. The financial support of the German BMBF and MPG; the Italian INFN and INAF; the Swiss National Fund SNF; the ERDF under the Spanish MINECO (FPA2017-87859-P, FPA2017-85668-P, FPA2017-82729-C6-2-R, FPA2017-82729-C6-6-R, FPA2017-82729-C6-5-R, AYA2015-71042-P, AYA2016-76012-C3-1-P, ESP2017-87055-C2-2-P, FPA2017-90566-REDC); the Indian Department of Atomic Energy; the Japanese ICRR, the University of Tokyo, JSPS, and MEXT; the Bulgarian Ministry of Education and Science, National RI Roadmap Project DO1-268/16.12.2019 and the Academy of Finland grant nr. 320045 is gratefully acknowledged. This work was also supported by the Spanish Centro de Excelencia "Severo Ochoa" SEV-2016-0588 and SEV-2015-0548, the Unidad de Excelencia "María de Maeztu" MDM-2014-0369 and the "la Caixa" Foundation (fellowship LCF/BQ/PI18/11630012), by the Croatian Science Foundation (HrZZ) Project IP-2016-06-9782 and the University of Rijeka Project, by the DFG Collaborative Research Centers SFB823/C4 and SFB876/C3, the Polish National Research Centre grant UMO-2016/22/M/ST9/00382 and by the Brazilian MCTIC, CNPq and FAPERJ. The Fermi-LAT Collaboration acknowledges generous ongoing support from a number of agencies and institutes that have supported both the development and the operation of the LAT as well as scientific data analysis. These include the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Department of Energy in the United States, the Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique and the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique/Institut National de Physique Nucléaire et de Physique des Particules in France, the Agenzia Spaziale Italiana and the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare in Italy, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) in Japan, and the K. A. Wallenberg Foundation, the Swedish Research Council and the Swedish National Space Board in Sweden. Additional support for science analysis during the operations phase is gratefully acknowledged from the Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica in Italy and the Centre National d'Études Spatiales in France. This work performed in part under DOE Contract DE-AC02-76SF00515. Part of this work is based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated by the Nordic Optical Telescope Scientific Association at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, La Palma, Spain, of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias. We acknowledge the support from the Bulgarian NSF through grants DN 18-1220 13/2017, DN 18-10/2017, KP-06-H28/3 (2018) and KP-06-PN38/1 (2019). This research has made use of data from the OVRO 40-m monitoring program which is supported in part by NASA grants NNX08AW31G, NNX11A043G, and NNX14AQ89G and NSF grants AST-0808050 and AST-1109911. This research has made use of data from the MOJAVE database that is maintained by the MOJAVE team (Lister et al. 2019). Part of this work is based on archival data, software, or online services provided by the Space Science Data Centre – ASI. This research has made use of data and/or software provided by the High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center (HEASARC), which is a service of the Astrophysics Science Division at NASA/GSFC and the High Energy Astrophysics Division of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory.

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August 19, 2023
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