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Published January 26, 2017 | Published
Journal Article Open

Direct measurement of hypoxia in a xenograft multiple myeloma model by optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy


Using photoacoustic microscopy (PAM), we evaluated non-invasively oxygenation and vascularization in vivodue to multiple myeloma (MM) progression. Mice injected with MM.1S-GFP were monitored with a fluorescence microscope for tumor progression. In vivo PAM of the cerebral bone marrow quantified the total oxygen saturation (sO_2). At 28 days after the MM cell injection, the total sO_2 had decreased by half in the developing tumor regions, while in the non-tumor regions it had decreased by 20% compared with the value at one day post MM injection. The blood vessel density was reduced by 35% in the developing tumor regions, while in the non-tumor regions it was reduced by 8% compared with the value at one day post MM injection. Hence, PAM corroborated the development of hypoxia due to MM progression and demonstrated decreased vascularization surrounding the tumor areas.

Additional Information

© 2017 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Received 09 Nov 2016, Accepted 18 Dec 2016, Accepted author version posted online: 03 Jan 2017, Published online: 26 Jan 2017. The authors appreciate the close reading of the manuscript by Prof. James Ballard. We also thank Lei Li for helpful discussions. This work was sponsored by National Institutes of Health Grants R01 CA186567 (NIH Director's Transformative Research Award), U01 NS090579 (BRAIN Initiative), and R01 CA159959, all to L.V.W. A.K.A. is supported by grants from National Institutes of Health under Award Number U54CA199092, the Multiple Myeloma Research Foundation, the International Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia Foundation and Bear Cub Award (Skandalaris Center at Washington University in St. Louis). Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest: L.V.W. has financial interests in Microphotoacoustics, Inc., which; however, did not support this work. A.K.A. reports receiving research support from Verastem, Selexys, Karyopharm, Cell Works, Cleave Bioscience, Glycomimetics, Abbvie and Vasculox; and is the founder and owner of Targeted Therapeutics LLC and Cellatrix LLC, which; however, did not support this work. All other authors state no conflicts of interest.

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