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Published October 2015 | Published
Journal Article Open

Single-exposure optical focusing inside scattering media using binarized time-reversed adapted perturbation


Light scattering inhibits high-resolution optical imaging, manipulation, and therapy deep inside biological tissue by preventing focusing. To form deep foci, wavefront-shaping techniques that break the optical diffusion limit have been developed. For in vivo applications, such focusing must provide a high gain, high speed, and a high focal peak-to-background ratio. However, none of the previous techniques meet these requirements simultaneously. Here, we overcome this challenge by rapidly measuring the perturbed optical field within a single camera exposure followed by adaptively time-reversing the phase-binarized perturbation. Consequently, a phase-conjugated wavefront is synthesized within a millisecond, two orders of magnitude shorter than the digitally achieved record. We demonstrate real-time focusing in dynamic scattering media and extend laser speckle contrast imaging to new depths. The unprecedented combination of a fast response, high gain, and high focusing contrast makes this work a major stride toward in vivo deep-tissue optical imaging, manipulation, and therapy.

Additional Information

© 2015 Optical Society of America. Received 8 June 2015; revised 3 August 2015; accepted 23 August 2015 (Doc. ID 242532); published 5 October 2015. Funding. National Institutes of Health (NIH) (DP1 EB016986, R01 CA186567). We thank Song Hu for discussions about the flow measurement experiment and James Ballard for editing the manuscript.

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October 20, 2023