Welcome to the new version of CaltechAUTHORS. Login is currently restricted to library staff. If you notice any issues, please email coda@library.caltech.edu
Published January 2009 | public
Journal Article

Aberrant Angiogenic Characteristics of Human Brain Arteriovenous Malformation Endothelial Cells


Objective: To identify and characterize the phenotypic and functional differences of endothelial cells derived from cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVM), as compared with endothelial cells derived from a normal brain. Methods: Isolated AVM brain endothelial cells and control brain endothelial cells were evaluated immunohistochemically for expression of the endothelial cell markers von Willebrand factor and CD31, as well as angiogenic factors including vascular endothelial growth factor A, interleukin-8, and endothelin-1. Vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1 and 2 were also evaluated using immunohistochemistry techniques. Functional assays evaluated cell proliferation, cytokine production, tubule formation, and cell migration using the modified Boyden chamber technique. Results: Endothelial cells derived from AVMs expressed high levels of vascular endothelial growth factor A and significantly overexpressed the vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1 and 2 (P < 0.05), as compared with control endothelial cells. In addition, comparison to control brain endothelial cells demonstrated that AVM brain endothelial cells proliferated faster, migrated more quickly, and produced aberrant tubule-like structures. Conclusion: Endothelial cells derived from cerebral AVMs are highly activated cells overexpressing proangiogenic growth factors and exhibiting abnormal functions consistent with highly activated endothelial cells.

Additional Information

© 2010 Congress of Neurological Surgeons. These studies were supported by the Anspach Foundation (Charles Y. Liu, M.D., Ph.D.). The authors have no personal financial gain or institutional interest in any of the drugs, materials, or devices described in this article. We thank Ligaya Pen, B.sc., for her assistance with the cell cultures. We thank the University of Southern California Doheny Eye Institute for generous access to the core microscope laboratory. We thank Thomas C. Chen, M.D., of the Department of Neurological Surgery, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, for his contribution and access to the laboratory.

Additional details

August 22, 2023
October 20, 2023