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Published December 20, 2020 | Published + Supplemental Material + Submitted
Journal Article Open

Cavity electro-optics in thin-film lithium niobate for efficient microwave-to-optical transduction


Linking superconducting quantum devices to optical fibers via microwave-optical quantum transducers may enable large-scale quantum networks. For this application, transducers based on the Pockels electro-optic (EO) effect are promising for their direct conversion mechanism, high bandwidth, and potential for low-noise operation. However, previously demonstrated EO transducers require large optical pump power to overcome weak EO coupling and reach high efficiency. Here, we create an EO transducer in thin-film lithium niobate, a platform that provides low optical loss and strong EO coupling. We demonstrate on-chip transduction efficiencies of up to (2.7±0.3)×10⁻⁵ and (1.9±0.4)×10⁻⁶/µW of optical pump power. The transduction efficiency can be improved by further reducing the microwave resonator's piezoelectric coupling to acoustic modes, increasing the optical resonator quality factor to previously demonstrated levels, and changing the electrode geometry for enhanced EO coupling. We expect that with further development, EO transducers in thin-film lithium niobate can achieve near-unity efficiency with low optical pump power.

Additional Information

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement. Received 12 May 2020; revised 20 September 2020; accepted 10 November 2020 (Doc. ID 397513); published 7 December 2020. This work was performed in part at the Center for Nanoscale Systems (CNS), a member of the National Nanotechnology Coordinated Infrastructure Network (NNCI), which is supported by the National Science Foundation. CNS is part of Harvard University. D.Z. is supported by the Harvard Quantum Initiative (HQI) postdoctoral fellowship. The authors thank C.J. Xin, E. Puma, B. Machielse, C. Wang, Y. Qiu, and W. Oliver for helpful discussions and assistance with device fabrication. Funding: Office of Naval Research (N00014-15-1-2761); U.S. Department of Energy (DE-SC0019219); Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada; AQT Intelligent Quantum Networks and Technologies; National Science Foundation (ECCS-1541959, ECCS-1839197, NSF 1541959). Disclosures: MZ: HyperLight Corporation (I,E). ML: Hyperlight Corporation (I,S).

Attached Files

Submitted - 2005.00939.pdf

Supplemental Material - 4847333.pdf

Published - optica-7-12-1714.pdf


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August 20, 2023
August 20, 2023