Three-dimensional modeling of intersonic shear-crack growth in asymmetrically loaded unidirectional composite plates
An anisotropic cohesive model of fracture is applied to the numerical simulation of Coker and Rosakis experiments (2001). In these experiments, a unidirectional graphite–epoxy composites plate was impacted with a projectile, resulting in an intersonic shear-dominated crack growth. The simulations account for explicit crack nucleation––through a self-adaptive remeshing procedure––crack closure and frictional sliding. The parameters used in the cohesive model are obtained from quasi-static fracture experiments, and successfully predict the dynamic fracture behavior. In keeping with the experiments, the calculations indicate that there is a preferred intersonic speed for locally steady-state growth of dynamic shear cracks, provided that sufficient energy is supplied to the crack tip. The calculations also show that the crack tip can attain speeds in the vicinity of the longitudinal wave speed in the direction of the fibers, if impacted at higher speeds. In addition, a double-shock which emanates from a finite size contact region behind the crack tip is observed in the simulations. The predicted double-shock structure of the near-tip fields is in close agreement with the experimental observations. The calculations additionally predict the presence of a string of surface hot spots which arise following the passage of the crack tip. The observed and computed hot spot structures agree both in geometry as well as in the magnitude of the temperature elevation. The analysis thus suggests intermittent friction as the origin of the experimentally observed hot spots.
© 2002 Elsevier. Received 20 November 2001, Available online 9 November 2002. AJR and DC acknowledge the support of the Office of Naval Research through grant N00014-95 to Caltech and the support of the National Science Foundation grant CMS9813100. CY, AP and MO are grateful for DoE support provided through Caltech's ASCI/ASAP Center for the Simulation of the Dynamic Response of Solids.