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Published January 1998 | public
Journal Article

Nanometer-Sized Particle Formation from NH₃/SO₂/H₂O/Air Mixtures by Ionizing Irradiation


Formation of nanometer-sized particles in NH₃/SO₂/H₂O/Air mixtures by α-ray irradiation was studied experimentally to evaluate the effect of NH3 gas on the gas-to-particle conversion process. The total particle number concentration, the charged-particle fraction, and the electrical mobility distribution of particles generated in the ionization chamber were measured at various NH₃, SO₂, and H₂O vapor concentrations and residence times of the gas mixture. Particle generation was enhanced in the presence of NH₃, but the enhancement depends greatly on the SO₂, NH₃, and H₂O concentrations; particle number concentrations at NH₃ mixing ratios of 0.71–3.6 ppm were 2–4 times higher than those in the absence of NH₃, but were constant in this range of NH₃ concentration. The charged-particle fraction decreased with the addition of NH₃, which indicated that ion-induced nucleation was decreased and homogeneous nucleation was enhanced. To evaluate the number concentrations of gaseous products, kinetic equations for the vapor species were solved on the basis of chain reactions initiated by OH radicals. From comparisons between experimental and predicted behavior, it is strongly suggested that the NH₃SO₃ species is the principal route to nanometer-sized particles in the NH₃/SO₂/H₂O/Air mixture.

Additional Information

This work was supported in part by a grant-in-aid for Developmental Scientific Research (No. 09555229, 09555240, 09650849) from the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science of Japan (MA. and KO.), and "Research for the Future" of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (96P00402) (K.O.). Acknowledgment is also made to National Science Foundation grant (ATM-9614105) (J.H.S.).

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October 25, 2023