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Published August 1, 2003 | public
Journal Article Open

A duality model of TCP and queue management algorithms

Low, Steven H.


We propose a duality model of end-to-end congestion control and apply it to understanding the equilibrium properties of TCP and active queue management schemes. The basic idea is to regard source rates as primal variables and congestion measures as dual variables, and congestion control as a distributed primal-dual algorithm over the Internet to maximize aggregate utility subject to capacity constraints. The primal iteration is carried out by TCP algorithms such as Reno or Vegas, and the dual iteration is carried out by queue management algorithms such as DropTail, RED or REM. We present these algorithms and their generalizations, derive their utility functions, and study their interaction.

Additional Information

© Copyright 2003 IEEE. Reprinted with permission. Manuscript received February 20, 2001; approved by IEEE/ACM TRANSACTIONS ON NETWORKING Editor T. V. Lakshman. [Posted online: 2003-08-26] This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grants ANI-0113425 and ANI-0230967 and by the Army Research Office (ARO) under Grant DAAD19-02-1-0283. This paper was presented in part at the ITC Specialist Seminar on IP Traffic Measurement, Modeling and Management, Monterey, CA, September 2000. The author would like to thank J. Doyle (Caltech), F. Paganini (UCLA), and L. Zhu (NJIT) for insightful discussions on an earlier version of this paper.


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August 22, 2023
August 22, 2023