Inorganic Geochemistry and Redox Dynamics in Bank Filtration Settings
Bank filtration induces flow of surface water through a hydraulically connected aquifer by excess pumping from a production well in the aquifer. This review presents the four main geochemical processes relevant for inorganic geochemistry, with a focus on iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn), during bank filtration: reduction near the bank, oxidation near the production well, carbonate dissolution, and sorption to aquifer materials. Physical and transport processes affect these geochemical processes and influence the redox state of the infiltrate. The presence of Fe and Mn in bank infiltrate is directly related to its redox status and can necessitate drinking water treatment after extraction. Long-term, in situ sequestration of Fe and Mn requires precipitation of oxide or carbonate solids, since a sorption front can breakthrough at the production well.