An Ex Vivo Study of Outward Electrical Impedance Tomography (OEIT) for Intravascular Imaging
Objective : Atherosclerosis is a chronic immuno-inflammatory condition emerging in arteries and considered the cause of a myriad of cardiovascular diseases. Atherosclerotic lesion characterization through invasive imaging modalities is essential in disease evaluation and determining intervention strategy. Recently, electrical properties of the lesions have been utilized in assessing its vulnerability mainly owing to its capability to differentiate lipid content existing in the lesion, albeit with limited detection resolution. Electrical impedance tomography is the natural extension of conventional spectrometric measurement by incorporating larger number of interrogating electrodes and advanced algorithm to achieve imaging of target objects and thus provides significantly richer information. It is within this context that we develop Outward Electrical Impedance Tomography (OEIT), aimed at intravascular imaging for atherosclerotic lesion characterization. Methods : We utilized flexible electronics to establish the 32-electrode OEIT device with outward facing configuration suitable for imaging of vessels. We conducted comprehensive studies through simulation model and ex vivo setup to demonstrate the functionality of OEIT. Results : Quantitative characterization for OEIT regarding its proximity sensing and conductivity differentiation was achieved using well-controlled experimental conditions. Imaging capability for OEIT was further verified with phantom setup using porcine aorta to emulate in vivo environment. Conclusion : We have successfully demonstrated a novel tool for intravascular imaging, OEIT, with unique advantages for atherosclerosis detection. Significance : This study demonstrates for the first time a novel electrical tomography-based platform for intravascular imaging, and we believe it paves the way for further adaptation of OEIT for intravascular detection in more translational settings and offers great potential as an alternative imaging tool for medical diagnosis.
Additional Information© 2021 IEEE. Manuscript received January 26, 2021; revised June 12, 2021; accepted August 3, 2021. Date of publication August 12, 2021; date of current version January 20, 2022. This work was supported in part by National Institute of Health under Grant R01HL118650, T.K.H and in part by China Postdoctoral Science Foundation under Grant 2019M660309, D.H. (Yuan Luo, Dong Huang and Zi-Yu Huang contributed equally to this work.) The authors want to thank Dr. Rene R. S. Packard and Dr. Parinaz Abiri for their helpful discussion throughout this work.
Accepted Version - nihms-1773715.pdf
Supplemental Material - supp1-3104300.docx